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Table 2 Comparison of the 15-ball test performance and error distances of the five 9-ball skill tests among players of different playing levels

From: Development of new 9-ball test protocols for assessing expertise in cue sports

  Recreational (R)
(n = 8)
University (U)
(n = 15)
National (N)
(n = 8)
P ηp2 Post-hoc
Balls potted 4.8 (2.2) 11.3 (4.7) 20.6 (6.4) < 0.001* 0.218 R < U R < N U < N
Power control [cm]
 Absolute error 44.7 (16.7) 32.9 (9.0) 28.7 (6.0) 0.060 0.257    
 Positive error 42.0 (18.8) 27.4 (10.2) 25.0 (8.0) 0.106 0.247    
 Negative error −48.2 (23.0) − 38.7 (16.6) −31.5 (11.4) 0.176 0.121    
Cue alignment [cm]
 Absolute error 6.3 (4.8) 4.5 (2.6) 2.3 (1.7) 0.053 0.189    
 Positive error 2.8 (1.9) 2.9 (1.7) 2.5 (0.9) 0.958 0.006    
 Negative error −6.0 (6.1) −4.4 (2.7) −2.3 (1.7) 0.233 0.119    
Angle [cm]
 Absolute error 8.0 (1.5) 4.8 (2.7) 2.3 (1.1) < 0.001* 0.517 R > U R > N U > N
 Positive error 7.0 (1.9) 4.0 (2.2) 2.0 (1.4) < 0.001* 0.504 R > U R > N  
 Negative error −5.0 (3.1) −3.5 (2.4) −1.4 (0.5) 0.080 0.205    
Back spin [cm]
 Absolute error 64.9 (24.2) 26.5 (5.2) 26.4 (5.0) 0.006* 0.662 R > U R > N  
 Positive error 28.4 (3.1) 20.2 (5.3) 18.0 (6.1) 0.079 0.214    
 Negative error − 65.1 (24.0) − 29.6 (7.0) −30.0 (6.1) 0.010* 0.605 R > U R > N  
Top spin [cm]
 Absolute error 15.5 (5.7) 10.3 (3.8) 10.7 (3.3) 0.045* 0.219 R > U   
 Positive error 9.7 (7.6) 8.0 (2.3) 6.0 (2.8) 0.297 0.110    
 Negative error −15.3 (7.4) −11.5 (5.0) −11.6 (4.3) 0.342 0.082    
  1. Balls potted refers to the number of balls potted in the 15-ball test (sum of best 2 out of 3 trials). Significant difference (p < 0.05) is shown in bold text and indicated by an asterisk. An absolute error was calculated as the mean value of the absolute error distances from 10 trials; a negative mean error distance was calculated from all negative values within the 10 trials; a positive mean error distance was calculated from all positive values within the 10 trials