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Table 3 Inter-trial variability of the error distances of the five 9-ball tests among players of different playing levels

From: Development of new 9-ball test protocols for assessing expertise in cue sports

  Recreational (R)
(n = 8)
University (U)
(n = 15)
National (N)
(n = 8)
P ηp2 Post-hoc
Power control [cm] 52.0 (17.8) 37.6 (13.3) 33.5 (9.2) 0.025* 0.231 R > N   
Cue alignment [cm] 6.6 (3.3) 4.7 (2.1) 3.1 (1.9) 0.024* 0.234 R > N   
Angle [cm] 10.5 (1.8) 6.9 (3.3) 4.2 (1.8) < 0.001* 0.449 R > U R > N U > N
Back spin [cm] 16.9 (11.0) 27.9 (5.9) 25.3 (7.5) 0.016* 0.265 R < U   
Top spin [cm] 11.7 (2.8) 9.3 (2.8) 7.7 (2.7) 0.046* 0.218 R > N   
  1. Inter-trial variability was represented by standard deviation of the 10 trials within an individual and mean values (standard deviations) were calculated for each group. Significant difference (p < 0.05) is shown in bold text and indicated by an asterisk