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Table 2 Ventilatory gas analysis and surface electromyographic results during Nordic walking (NW) and conventional walking (W)

From: Estimation of energy expenditure of Nordic walking: a crossover trial

  NW W P-value Δ (NW–W) Δ (NW–W)/W (%)
O2 (mL·kg−1·min− 1) 15.5 ± 3.9 13.5 ± 3.7 <.01 2.0 ± 1.6 15.8
CO2 (mL·min− 1) 968.9 ± 300.0 840.3 ± 281.2 <.01 128.6 ± 111.4 17.0
E (L·min− 1) 25.0 ± 6.9 21.6 ± 6.1 <.01 3.4 ± 3.3 17.0
RER 0.823 ± 0.058 0.815 ± 0.069 <.05 0.007 ± 0.035 1.1
RR (beat·min− 1) 24.6 ± 3.5 21.0 ± 3.1 <.01 3.5 ± 3.8 18.2
SBP (mmHg) 144.5 ± 11.5 134.5 ± 11.2 <.01 10 ± 9.1 7.7
DBP (mmHg) 79.2 ± 5.5 74.4 ± 5.1 <.01 4.9 ± 5.9 6.9
HR (beat·min− 1) 115.8 ± 14.4 106.9 ± 13.2 <.01 8.8 ± 5.6 8.4
RPE 8.3 ± 2.6 9.0 ± 2.7 <.01 − 0.6 ± 1.4 −5.9
DEL (μV) 12.0 ± 4.8 6.7 ± 3.7 <.01 5.3 ± 3.1 94.9
BB (μV) 18.9 ± 7.2 5.6 ± 4.5 <.01 13.3 ± 8.8 381.4
TB (μV) 21.8 ± 10.1 6.4 ± 3.2 <.01 15.4 ± 9.2 308.6
VL (μV) 65.4 ± 57.7 67.6 ± 57.9 .60 −2.2 ± 39.1 34.7
TA (μV) 45.7 ± 14.4 40.9 ± 11.3 <.01 4.8 ± 9.8 13.3
GCM (μV) 39.7 ± 11.8 36.5 ± 12.3 <.01 3.3 ± 6.8 11.7
  1. RER respiratory exchange ratio, RR respiratory rate, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBD diastolic blood pressure, HR heart rate, RPE rating of perceived exertion, DEL deltoid, BB biceps brachii, TB triceps brachii, VL vastus lateralis, TA tibialis anterior, GCM gastrocnemius, L3 L3 paraspinals