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Table 2 Mean ± standard division for outcomes at baseline and post-intervention for each group

From: Effects of combining diaphragm training with electrical stimulation on pain, function, and balance in athletes with chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial

Variable Group Pre-intervention Post-intervention
Pain (NRS) TENS 4.7 ± 1.3 3.1 ± 1.3
TENS + DT 5.5 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 0.6
Function (COMI) TENS 4.5 ± 0.9 2.6 ± 0.6
TENS + DT 4.5 ± 0.7 1.9 ± 0.9
Static stability (UHBE) TENS Rt 25.9 ± 11.5 27.3 ± 11.5
Lt 25.1 ± 11.1 28.3 ± 13.7
TENS + DT Rt 26.3 ± 11.1 37.5 ± 12.6
Lt 25 ± 10.1 40.1 ± 10.6
Dynamic Balance (SEBT) Ant TENS Rt 81.8 ± 9.8 82.35 ± 10.7
Lt 82.2 ± 10.6 83.8 ± 10.7
TENS + DT Rt 80.1 ± 7.1 87.7 ± 7.9
Lt 81.7 ± 7.8 86.3 ± 8.3
Post Lat TENS Rt 76.4 ± 13.1 82.1 ± 14.6
Lt 76.9 ± 14.5 78.7 ± 14.1
TENS + DT Rt 71.5 ± 7.68 91.5 ± 8.3
Lt 69.7 ± 7.1 76.9 ± 8.6
Post Med TENS Rt 83.2 ± 14.9 85.5 ± 14.3
Lt 83.4 ± 13.8 88.7 ± 17.8
TENS + DT Rt 79.5 ± 7.3 98.1 ± 8.7
Lt 77.1 ± 8.4 83.9 ± 10.1
  1. TENS Trans Cutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation, DT Diaphragm training, NRS Numeric Rating Scale, COMI Core Outcome Measure Index, UHBE Unilateral Hip Bridge Endurance test, SEBT Star Excursion Balance Test, Ant Anterior, PostLat Posterior lateral, PostMed Posterior medial, Rt Right, Lt Left