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Table 3 The results of ANOVA 2 × 2 for the variables

From: Effects of combining diaphragm training with electrical stimulation on pain, function, and balance in athletes with chronic low back pain: a randomized clinical trial

Variable Main effect group Main effect time Interaction group × time
Pain (NRS) F(1, 22) = 0.4, p = 0.5 F(1, 22) =119.3, p < 0.001 F(1, 22) =19.8, p < 0.001
Function (COMI) F(1, 22) = 1.1, p = 0.3 F(1, 22) =109.5, p < 0.001 F(1, 22) = 2.4, p = 0.09
Static stability (UHBE) Rt F(1, 22) =1.3, p = 0.3 F(1, 22) =3.8, p = 0.06 F(1, 22) = 6.3, p = 0.02
Lt F(1, 22) =1.3, p = 0.2 F(1, 22) = 67.8, p < 0.001 F(1, 22) = 28.2, p < 0.001
Dynamic Balance (SEBT) Ant Rt F(1, 22) =0.9, p = 0.3 F(1, 22) =128.7, p < 0.001 F(1, 22) = 39.6, p < 0.001
Lt F (1, 22) = 0.2, p = 0.6 F (1, 22) = 128.6, p < 0.001 F (1, 22) = 7.9, p = 0.01
Post Med Rt F(1, 22) =1.0 p = 0.3 F(1, 22) =36.7, p < 0.001 F(1, 22) = 22.8, p < 0.001
Lt F (1, 22) = 0.9, p = 0.3 F (1, 22) = 21.5, p < 0.001 F(1, 22) = 0.4, p = 0.5
Post Lat Rt F(1, 22) =0.2, p = 0.6 F(1, 22) =88.5, p < 0.001 F(1, 22) = 27.9, p < 0.001
Lt F (1, 22) = 0.8, p = 0.4 F(1, 22) = 8.8, p = 0.008 F(1, 22) = 3.25, p = 0.08
  1. TENS Trans Cutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation, DT Diaphragm training, NRS Numeric Rating Scale, COMI Core Outcome Measure Index, UHBE Unilateral Hip Bridge Endurance test, SEBT Star Excursion Balance Test, Ant Anterior, PostLat Posterior lateral, PostMed Posterior medial, Rt Right, Lt Left