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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, liver fat and insulin resistance in adults with or without type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis

  Normal Glucose Tolerance (n = 37) Type 2 Diabetes (n = 35) Total (n = 72) p ES (95%CI)
Demographics and anthropometry
 Gender (M/F) 13/24 20/15 33/39 0.610  
 MAFLD (Y/N) 16/21 23/12 39/33 0.056  
 Age (years) 44.84 (10.23) 53.97 (7.85) 49.28 (10.18) <0.001 -1.030 (-3.93 to 1.86)
 Waist Circumference (cm) 101.21 (12.30) 116.30 (12.43) 108.55 (14.43) <0.001 -1.26 (-5.18 to 2.67)
 BMI (kg/m2) 33.62 (4.52) 35.81 (5.04) 34.69 (4.87) 0.056 -0.47 (-1.99 to 1.05)
 LF (%) 6.59 (5.93) 10.25 (7.43) 8.37 (6.90) 0.008 -0.65 (-0.84 to -0.45)
 SBP (mmHg) 122.92 (14.41) 129.41 (16.85) 126.07 (15.87) 0.083 -0.43 (-5.40 to 4.55)
 DBP (mmHg) 79.30 (6.99) 80.16 (9.28) 79.71 (8.14) 0.658 -0.11 (-2.72 to 2.50)
Biochemistry
 AST (U/L) 22.32 (9.17) 29.06 (21.05) 25.60 (16.32) 0.080 -0.43 (-5.58 to 4.73)
 ALT (U/L) 22.95 (10.13) 35.17 (23.10) 28.89 (18.59) 0.005 -0.71 (-6.37 to 4.95)
 CRP (mg/L) 4.65 (4.71) 4.11 (4.73) 4.39 (4.70) 0.628 0.12 (-1.38 to 1.62)
 FBG (mmol/L) 4.28 (0.61) 8.21 (3.00) 6.19 (2.90) <0.001 -1.87 (-2.56 to 1.18)
aInsulin (mU/L) 10.22 (5.96) 12.17 (6.63) 11.08 (6.29) 0.212 -0.32 (-2.32 to 1.68)
aHOMA-IR 2.00 (1.34) 4.43 (2.61) 3.07 (2.33) <0.001 -1.21 (-1.86 to -0.55)
Lipids
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.49 (0.86) 1.66 (0.67) 1.57 (0.78) 0.368 -0.23 (-0.47 to 0.02)
 Total Cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.59 (1.25) 4.43 (0.80) 5.03 (1.20) <0.001 1.14 (0.80 to 1.47)
 HDL (mmol/L) 1.40 (0.32) 1.15 (0.26) 1.28 (0.32) 0.001 0.88 (0.79 to 0.98)
 LDL (mmol/L) 3.53 (0.95) 2.47 (0.75) 3.02 (1.01) <0.001 1.27 (1.00 to 1.55)
 FFA (umol/L) 389.67 (162.24) 508.71 (198.24) 447.54 (189.09) 0.007 -0.68 (-58.18 to 56.83)
Cardiorespiratory Fitness
 VO2peak (mL/kg/min) 22.24 (3.90) 20.75 (3.51) 21.52 (3.77) 0.094 0.41 (-0.77 to 1.59)
  1. Data presented as mean (SD). ES effect size, CI confidence interval, M male, F female, MAFLD metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease, Y yes, N no, BMI body mass index, LF% liver fat percentage, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, FBG fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, FFA free fatty acids, VO2peak Peak oxygen consumption. aHOMA-IR and insulin measures reported for 37 participants with normal glucose tolerance and 29 participants with T2D as 6 participants with T2D were undergoing exogenous insulin therapy