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Table 3 Participant characteristics when stratified by cardiorespiratory fitness

From: The association between cardiorespiratory fitness, liver fat and insulin resistance in adults with or without type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional analysis

  Lowest Fitness, n = 18
(16.71 ml/kg/min)
IQR, n = 36
(21.49 ml/kg/min)
Highest Fitness, n = 18
(26.36 ml/kg/min)
Between group p ES (95%CI)
Demographics and anthropometry
 Gender (M/F) 8/10 17/19 8/10 0.974  
 Type 2 Diabetes (Y/N) 11/7 18/18 6/12 0.250  
 MAFLD (Y/N) 15/3 16/20 8/10 0.015 b, c  
 Age (years) 54.56 (9.94) 47.33 (9.48) 47.89 (10.47) 0.037 b, c 0.67 (-2.57 to 3.91)
 Waist Circumference (cm) 119.03 (15.38) 107.39 (12.64) 100.38 (10.70) <0.001 b, c 1.45 (-2.76 to 5.65)
 BMI (kg/m2) 39.81 (4.29) 33.34 (3.55) 32.27 (4.12) <0.001 b, c 1.85 (0.51 to 3.18)
 LF (%) 11.40 (6.25) 8.00 (7.48) 6.08 (5.40) 0.033 b 0.94 (-0.92 to 2.79)
 SBP (mmHg) 135.66 (20.17) 124.77 (13.08) 119.09 (11.86) 0.004 b, c 1.03 (-4.22 to 6.28)
 DBP (mmHg) 83.21 (11.33) 78.60 (6.58) 78.44 (6.46) 0.107 b 0.53 (-2.40 to 3.46)
Biochemistry
 AST (U/L) 30.39 (22.57) 25.78 (16.16) 20.44 (3.62) 0.189 0.633 (-4.50 to 5.77)
 ALT (U/L) 34.72 (22.72) 29.22 (18.81) 22.39 (10.82) 0.136 b 0.71 (-4.94 to 6.36)
 CRP (mg/L) 7.30 (6.72) 3.38 (3.41) 3.51 (3.30) 0.008 b, c 0.74 (-0.94 to 2.42)
 FBG (mmol/L) 7.14 (3.16) 6.26 (3.14) 5.01 (1.59) 0.101 b 0.88 (0.08 to 1.67)
aInsulin (mU/L) 14.29 (7.79) 10.68 (6.16) 8.72 (3.37) 0.026 b 0.96 (-0.95 to 2.86)
aHOMA-IR 4.56 (2.89) 2.82 (2.06) 2.08 (1.44) 0.004 b, c 1.12 (0.39 to 1.84)
Lipids
 Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.61 (0.75) 1.57 (0.73) 1.54 (0.91) 0.973 0.09 (-0.18 to 0.35)
 Total Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.93 (1.34) 4.93 (1.24) 5.30 (0.95) 0.527 -0.33 (-0.70 to 0.04)
 HDL (mmol/L) 1.30 (0.30) 1.22 (0.34) 1.38 (0.29) 0.223 -0.28 (-0.37 to -0.19)
 LDL (mmol/L) 2.88 (1.10) 2.96 (1.03) 3.27 (0.87) 0.464 -0.41 (-0.72 to -0.09)
 FFA (umol/L) 531.83 (196.93) 439.92 (188.65) 378.49 (156.79) 0.047 b 0.89(-55.62 to 57.39)
  1. Data presented as mean (SD). IQR interquartile range, ES effect size, CI confidence interval, M male, F female, MAFLD metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease, Y yes, N no, BMI body mass index, LF% liver fat percentage, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, FBG fasting blood glucose, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, FFA free fatty acids, VO2 Peak oxygen consumption. aHOMA-IR and insulin measures reported for 37 participants with normal glucose tolerance and 29 participants with T2D as 6 participants with T2D were undergoing exogenous insulin therapy. bsignificant difference between lowest and highest fitness; csignificant difference between lowest fitness and IQR