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Table 1 Biometric and archival characteristics of the total and groups comparison, mean ± standard deviation, n = sample size, Match = matching variable; M = Male, F = female; n.s. = not significant

From: Unilateral and bilateral training competitive archers differ in some potentially unhealthy neck-shoulder region movement behaviour characteristics

  Total Unilateral archers Bilateral archers Between group difference t-(or Chi) and p-value
Number 75 50 25 Match
Sex (m = male, f = female) M = 60; f = 15 M = 40; f = 10 M = 20; f = 5 Match
Age [years] 47.4 ± 13.9 47.3 ± 13.9 47.6 ± 14.3 Match
Height (m) 1.78 ± 0.1 1.78 ± 0.1 1.78 ± 0.1 n.s.
Body weight [kg) 81.3 ± 12.8 81 ± 12.7 82 ± 13.1 0.1; n.s.
Body mass index (BMI) [kg/m2] 25.6 ± 3.4 25.5 ± 3.3 26 ± 3.8 −0.57; n.s.
Archery discipline: Target Archery - Field Archery - 3D Archery [% of participants] 39.2 - 14.5% - .46.3% 38.3 - 17.3% - 44.4% 41.2 - 8.8% - 50% 2.9 n.s.
Archery experience [years] 10.4 ± 7.7 10 ± 7 11 ± 9 −0.53; n.s.
Training frequency [sessions/week] 2.4 ± 1.3 2.4 ± 1.2 2.6 ± 1.6 −0.61; n.s.
Training duration [hours/week] 4.3 ± 2.7 4.4 ± 2.3 4.2 ± 2.9 0.32; n.s.
Secondary upper limb sports [% of particpants] 7 10 5 n.s.
Archery-associated strength / resistance training [% of participants] 22 21 24 n.s.
Eye dominance [% of participants] right – left – unknown 69.3–29.3 – 1.3 74–26 - 0 60–36 - 4 3.0; n.s.
pull-arm-dominance [% of participants] right – left – cross 81.3–18.6 – 21.3 90–10 - 24 64–36 - 16 20.4; < .01
Frequency of participants with a history of cervical spine complaints 15% 14% 16% 0.1; n.s.
Frequency of participants with a history of shoulder complaints 43% 42% 44% 0.1; n.s.
Frequency of participants with a history of trunk complaints 25% 26% 24% 0.1; n.s.
Profession of the archers (mostly sedentary – mostly standing – mostly walking) [% of participants] 68–22 - 10 66–26 - 8 72–14 - 14 5.5; n.s.