Skip to main content

Table 4 Performance during the baseline and follow-up sessions for the control and experimental groups

From: Effects of a neuromuscular training program using external focus attention cues in male athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized clinical trial

  Control Group Experimental Group  
  Baselinea Follow-upa % Δ b Pc Effect size Baselinea Follow-upa % Δ b Pc Effect size Between group differences (ANCOVA)
Kinematics
 Peak trunk Flexion (°) 27.2 ± 10.8 28.3 ± 10.7 ↑4.01 0.259 0.050 23.2 ± 10.3 48.3 ± 10.8 ↑108.59 <.001 0.76 0.003*
 Peak hip Flexion (°) 38.6 ± 10.9 37.9 ± 12.5 ↓1.86 0.639 0.205 22.3 ± 6.8 35.3 ± 5.1 ↑58.37 <.001 0.73 0.008*
 Peak knee flexion (°) 23.5 ± 9.1 27.3 ± 9.2 ↑16.34 0.211 0.030 39.7 ± 12.54 56.8 ± 10.3 ↑43.21 .01 0.60 0.012*
 Peak knee abduction (°) 7.8 ± 1.1 7.6 ± 0.9 ↓2.68 0.114 0.101 8.1 ± 1.18 5.7 ± 0.8 ↓29.64 <.001 0.77 0.018*
 Peak knee internal rotation (°) 14.4 ± 1.7 14.5 ± 1.9 ↑0.27 0.870 0.001 15.9 ± 2.15 12.8 ± 1.2 ↓19.86 <.001 0.76 0.022*
Kinetics
 Peak reaction force, N/BW 3.9 ± 1.2 3.8 ± 1.1 ↓1.81 0.075 0.030 3.4 ± 1.19 2.2 ± 0.5 ↓34.21 <.001 0.54 0.008*
 Peak anterior Tibial shear force (BW) 0.8 ± 0.5 0.8 ± 0.7 0 0.085 0.027 0.8 ± 0.6 0.7 ± 0.5 ↓12.5 0.01 0.66 0.018*
 Peak knee extension moment (Nm/kg) 3.8 ± 1.1 3.9 ± 0.8 ↑2.6 0.120 0.029 3.5 ± 1.3 2.7 ± 0.7 ↓22.85 0.01 0.59 0.022*
 Peak Knee Abduction Moment (Nm/kg) 1.5 ± 1.2 1.6 ± 1.1 ↑6.66 0.073 0.032 1.6 ± 0.7 1.0 ± 0.8 ↓37.5 <.001 0.64 0.014*
 Loading rate (BW/S) 45.4 ± 10.7 46.9 ± 8.1 ↑3.3 0.093 0.022 47.6 ± 6.9 34.1 ± 8.5 ↓28.36 0.01 0.81 0.016*
 Position sense errors (°) 6.7 ± 3.7 6.5 ± 2.9 ↓2.96 0.684 0.030 5.8 ± 1.67 2.8 ± 1.1 ↓51.90 .01 0.73 0.001*
 IKDC scores (%) 67.3 ± 8.1 68.8 ± 11.5 ↑2.2% .55 0.075 65.6 ± 9.7 84.7 ± 1.8 ↑29.1% <.001 0.80 0.003*
  1. aMean ± standard deviation for each dependent variable of interest during the baseline and follow-up time points
  2. b% Δ = percent change (follow-up relative to baseline); Iso = isometric, Con = concentric, Ecc = eccentric;
  3. IKDC = International Knee Documentation Committee
  4. cp-values (P) related to post hoc paired t-tests
  5. *denoted significant differences (ANCOVA)