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Table 1 Epidemiological, clinical, sport and training characteristics of all athlete’s tendinopathy cases and controls (N = 270)

From: Association of TNF-α -308G > A polymorphism with susceptibility to tendinopathy in athletes: a case–control study

Variables Control
(N = 135)
Tendinopathy
(N = 135)
P-valuea,b Unadjusted OR
(CI 95%)
Adjusted ORb
(CI 95%)
  N (%)    
Height (centimeters)d
 ≤ 166 36 (26.9) 34 (25.2) 0.75 1c 1c
 167 – 175 38 (28.4) 40 (29.6) 1.11 (0.58 – 2.13) 0.91 (0.35 – 1.56)
 176 – 181 29 (21.6) 25 (18.5) 0.91 (0.45 – 1.86) 0.66 (0.52 – 2.00)
 ≥ 182 31 (23.1) 36 (26.7) 1.23 (0.63 – 2.40) 0.90 (0.44 – 1.83)
BMI (Kg/m2)e
 < 25 87 (65.4) 73 (54.5) 0.04 1c 1c
  25 – 29.99 41 (30.8) 49 (36.6) 1.42 (0.35 – 2.39) 1.44 (0.85 – 2.46)
  ≥ 30 5 (3.8) 12 (8.9) 2.86 (0.93 – 2.50) 3.65 (1.20 – 11.16)
Level of schoolingf
  Middle school 6 (4.5) 3 (2.2) 0.49 1c 1c
  High school 60 (45.1) 56 (41.5) 1.87 (0.44 – 7.82) 1.80 (0.39 – 8.31)
  University education 67 (50.4) 76 (56.3) 2.27 (0.55 – 9.43) 2.19 (0.48 – 10.02)
Alcohol consumption
  No 53 (39.3) 44 (32.6) 0.36 1c 1c
  Yes 82 (60.7) 91 (67.4) 1.38 (0.81 – 2.20) 1.27 (0.76 – 2.14)
Smokingd
  No 125 (93.3) 122 (90.4) 0.38 1c 1c
  Yes 9 (6.7) 13 (9.6) 1.48 (0.61 – 3.59) 0.44 (0.57 – 3.59)
Nutritional follow-up
  No 78 (57.8) 52 (38.5) 0.001 1c 1c
  Yes 57 (42.2) 83 (61.5) 2.18 (1.34 – 3.55) 2.31 (1.40 – 3.80)
Side of dominance
  Right 110 (81.5) 104 (77.0) 0.27 1c 1c
  Left 11 (8.1) 20 (14.8) 1.92 (0.88 – 4.21) 1.67 (0.74 – 3.76)
  Bilateral 14 (10.4) 11 (8.2) 0.83 (0.36 –1.91) 0.69 (0.29 – 1.63)
Coachd
  Certified athletic trainer 92 (68.1) 81 (60.4) 0.54 1c 1c
 Former professional athlete 31 (23.0) 34 (25.4)   1.25 (0.70 – 2.20) 1.20 (0.66 – 2.17)
  Both 12 (8.9) 19 (14.2)   1.80 (0.82 – 3.93) 1.53 (0.68 – 3.46)
Age at the beginning of sport practice (years)d
  ≤ 10 41 (30.3) 41 (30.6) 0.80 1c 1c
  11 – 14 32 (23.7) 29 (21.6) 0.91 (0.47 – 1.76) 0.97 (0.48 – 1.95)
  15 – 19 31 (23.0) 37 (27.6) 1.19 (0.63 – 2.27) 1.33 (0.66 – 2.66)
  ≥ 20 31 (23.0) 27 (20.1) 0.87 (0.44 – 1.71) 0.99 (0.48 – 2.04)
Years of trainingd
 ≤ 5 49 (36.3) 38 (28.4) 0.84 1c 1c
  6 – 8 25 (18.5) 27 (20.1) 1.39 (0.70 – 2.77) 1.28 (0.63 – 2.61)
  9 – 12 32 (23.7) 35 (26.1) 1.41 (0.74 – 2.67) 1.29 (0.65 – 2.57)
  ≥ 13 29 (21.5) 34 (25.4) 1,51 (0.79 – 2.90) 1.28 (0.65 – 2.52)
Weekly training hours
  ≤ 7 38 (28.1) 32 (23.7) 0.46 1c 1c
  8 – 12 49 (36.3) 38 (28.1) 0.92 (0.49 – 1.73) 0.86 (0.44 – 1.68)
  13 – 17 22 (16.3) 24 (17.8) 1.29 (0.61 – 2.73) 1.22 (0.56 – 2.66)
  ≥ 18 26 (19.3) 41 (30.4) 1.87 (0.95 – 3.70) 1.45 (0.70 – 2.99)
  1. OR Odds ratio; CI confidence interval. aP-value ≤ 0.05 was obtained through the Chi-squared Test (Pearson p-value) or Fisher’s exact test. bOR adjusted by BMI and nutritional follow-up. cReference value. dInformation was obtained from 269 athletes. eInformation was obtained from 267 athletes. fInformation was obtained from 268 athletes.