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Table 2 Nutrition Knowledge (NK) of DIB Players and Coachesa

From: Sports nutrition knowledge and perceptions among professional basketball athletes and coaches in Lebanon-a cross-sectional study

  Basket Ball Players
Mean ± SD
Or n (%)
  Coaches
Mean ± SD
Or n (%)
Basic and Sports NK
Statement
Total (n=178) Men
(n-126)
Women
(n=52)
p-valueb Total (n=11)
Macronutrients c
Carbohydrates ( bread, potatoes..) are not as easily and rapidly digested as protein     0.34  
 Incorrect 64(36) 42(33.3) 22(42.3)   5(45.5)
 Correct 114(64) 84(66.7) 30(57.7)   6(54.5)
Carbohydrates ( bread, potatoes..) are not as easily and rapidly digested as fat     0.06  
 Incorrect 83(46.6) 65(51.6) 18(34.6)   4(36.4)
 Correct 95(53.4) 61(48.4) 34(65.4)   7(63.6)
Fiber in the diet may help to decrease constipation     0.00  
 Incorrect 86(48.3) 71(56.3) 15(28.8)   5(45.5)
 Correct 92(51.7) 55(43.7) 37(71.2)   6(54.5)
Fiber in the diet may help decrease blood cholesterol     0.71  
 Incorrect 80(44.9) 55(43.7) 25(48.1)   6(54.5)
 Correct 98(55.1) 71(56.3) 27(51.9)   5(45.5)
Fiber in the diet may help prevent cancers     1.00  
 Incorrect 75(42.1) 53(42.1) 22(42.3)   3(27.3)
 Correct 103(57.9) 73(57.9) 30(57.7)   8(72.7)
Eggs are examples of protein sources other than meats     0.00  
 Incorrect 26(14.6) 25(19.8) 1(1.9)   1(9.1)
 Correct 152(85.4) 101(80.2) 51(98.1)   10(90.9)
Legumes (beans, lentils..) are examples of protein sources other than meats     0.01  
 Incorrect 53(29.8) 30(23.8) 23(44.2)   
 Correct 125(70.2) 96(76.2) 29(55.8)   11(100.0)
Protein is the primary source of muscular energy for the athlete     0.23  
 Incorrect 145(81.5) 106(84.1) 39(75.0)   8(72.7)
 Correct 33(18.5) 20(15.9) 13(25.0)   3(27.3)
Protein is not stored in the body; therefore, it needs to be consumed everyday     0.00  
 Incorrect 60(33.7) 27(21.4) 33(63.5)   6(54.5)
 Correct 118(66.3) 99(78.6) 19(36.5)   5(45.5)
Increasing protein in the diet is necessary in order to increase muscle mass of the body     0.01  
 Incorrect 148(83.1) 98(77.8) 50(96.2)   10(90.9)
 Correct 30(16.9) 28(22.2) 2(3.8)   1(9.1)
Cheese is a good source of iron in the diet     0.05  
 Incorrect 107(60.1) 82(65.1) 25(48.1)   6(54.5)
 Correct 71(39.9) 44(34.9) 27(51.9)   5(45.5)
No more than 15% of calories in the diet should be provided by fat     0.14  
 Incorrect 142(80.2) 97(77.0) 45(88.2)   9(81.8)
 Correct 35(19.8) 29(23.0) 6(11.8)   2(18.2)
Micronutrients
Iron-deficiency anemia (lack of iron) results in a decrease in the amount of oxygen that can be carried in the blood and therefore impairs athletic performance     0.16  
 Incorrect 63(35.4) 40(31.7) 23(44.2)   3(27.3)
 Correct 115(64.6) 86(68.3) 29(55.8)   8(72.7)
Vitamin supplementation is recommended for all physically active persons     0.35  
 Incorrect 141(79.2) 97(77.0) 44(84.6)   8(72.7)
 Correct 37(20.8) 29(23.0) 8(15.4)   3(27.3)
Excess vitamin supplementation may harm the physically active person     0.00  
 Incorrect 101(56.7) 84(66.7) 17(32.7)   5(45.5)
 Correct 77(43.3) 42(33.3) 35(67.3)   6(54.5)
Vitamins are a good source of energy     0.64  
 Incorrect 138(77.5) 96(76.2) 42(80.8)   6(54.5)
 Correct 40(22.5) 30(23.8) 10(19.2)   5(45.5)
Carrots are a good source of vitamin A     0.72  
 Incorrect 70(39.3) 48(38.1) 22(42.3)   3(27.3)
 Correct 108(60.7) 78(61.9) 30(57.7)   8(72.7)
Whole fat milk is a better source of vitamin D than fat free milk     0.01  
 Incorrect 120(67.4) 77(61.1) 43(82.7)   10(90.9)
 Correct 59(32.6) 49(38.9) 9(17.3)   1(9.1)
Whole fat milk is better source of vitamin D than low fat milk     0.00  
 Incorrect 116(65.2) 73(57.9) 43(82.7)   8(72.7)
 Correct 62(34.8) 53(42.1) 9(17.3)   3(27.3)
A lack of iron in the diet can result in fatigue     0.00  
 Incorrect 65(36.5) 60(47.6) 5(9.6)   2(18.2)
 Correct 113(63.5) 66(52.4) 47(90.4)   9(81.8)
A lack of iron in the diet can result in injury     0.00  
 Incorrect 81(46.3) 67(54.5) 14(26.9)   1(9.1)
 Correct 94(53.7) 56(45.5) 38(73.1)   10(90.9)
Hydration
Dehydration (when you lose more fluid than you take in your body) can impair physical performance     0.06  
 Incorrect 38(21.3) 32(25.4) 6(11.5)   1(9.1)
 Correct 140(78.7) 94(74.6) 46(88.5)   10(90.9)
During activity, feeling thirsty is an adequate indicator of the need for liquid (water, sport drink...)     0.01  
 Incorrect 159(89.3) 107(84.9) 52(100.0)   11(100.0)
 Correct 19(10.7) 19(15.1) 0(0.0)   
During exercise, mass ingestion of large amounts of any fluid (water, sport drink...) is preferred over frequent ingestion of small amounts     0.61  
 Incorrect 96(53.9) 70(55.6) 26(50.0)   8(72.7)
 Correct 82(46.1) 56(44.4) 26(50.0)   3(27.3)
An athlete should drink no water during practice, but rather rinse out his or her mouth     1.00  
 Incorrect 41(23.0) 29(23.0) 12(23.1)   4(36.4)
 Correct 137(77.0) 97(77.0) 40(76.9)   7(63.6)
An athlete should drink no water during practice, but rather suck on ice cubes     0.14  
 Incorrect 46(25.8) 37(29.4) 9(17.3)   3(27.3)
 Correct 132(74.2) 89(70.6) 43(82.7)   8(72.7)
Sports drinks are the best way to replace body fluids lost during exercise      
 Incorrect 127(71.3) 90(71.4) 37(71.2)   6(54.5)
 Correct 51(28.7) 36(28.6) 15(28.8)   5(45.5)
Caffeine can increase the risk of dehydration     0.96  
 Incorrect 57(32.0) 41(32.5) 16(30.8)   4(36.4)
 Correct 121(68.0) 85(67.5) 36(69.2)   7(63.6)
An athlete involved in endurance events (eg, long distance running) should follow a considerably different diet than one participating in events of short duration (eg, sprinting)     0.10  
 Incorrect 138(77.5) 93(73.8) 45(86.5)   6(54.5)
 Correct 40(22.5) 33(26.2) 7(13.5)   5(45.5)
A physically fit person eating a nutritionally adequate diet can improve his or her performance by consuming greater amounts of nutrients     0.00  
 Incorrect 133(74.7) 85(67.5) 48(92.3)   10(90.9)
 Correct 45(25.3) 41(32.5) 4(7.7)   1(9.1)
A sound nutritional practice for athletes is to eat a wide variety of different food types everyday     0.24  
 Incorrect 72(40.4) 55(43.7) 17(32.7)   1(9.1)
 Correct 106(59.6) 71(56.3) 35(67.3)   10(90.9)
Nutrition is more important during the competitive season than during the off-season for the athlete     0.91  
 Incorrect 85(47.8) 61(48.4) 24(46.2)   2(18.2)
 Correct 93(52.2) 65(51.6) 28(53.8)   9(81.8)
What the athlete eats is only important if the athlete is trying to gain weight     0.03  
 Incorrect 45(25.3) 38(30.2) 7(13.5)   2(18.2)
 Correct 133(74.7) 88(69.8) 45(86.5)   9(81.8)
What the athlete eats is only important if the athlete is trying to lose weight     0.68  
 Incorrect 43(24.2) 32(25.4) 11(21.2)   2(18.2)
 Correct 135(75.8) 94(74.6) 41(78.8)   9(81.8)
Skipping meals is justifiable if you need to lose weight quickly     0.00  
 Incorrect 77(43.3) 64(50.8) 13(25.0)   2(18.2)
 Correct 101(56.7) 62(49.2) 39(75.0)   9(81.8)
When trying to lose weight, acidic foods such as grapefruit are of special value because they burn fat     1.00  
 Incorrect 80(44.9) 57(45.2) 23(44.2)   7(63.6)
 Correct 98(55.1) 69(54.8) 29(55.8)   4(36.4)
If trying to lose weight, carbohydrates should come from fruits and vegetables rather than from breads and pastas     0.61  
 Incorrect 65(36.5) 48(38.1) 17(32.7)   5(45.5)
 Correct 113(63.5) 78(61.9) 35(67.3)   6(54.5)
Alcohol has more calories per gram than protein     0.24  
 Incorrect 57(32.0) 37(29.4) 20(38.5)   4(36.4)
 Correct 121(68.0) 89(70.6) 32(61.5)   7(63.6)
A 90kg (200-pound) person uses about twice as many calories to run a 1.6km (1mile) as a 45kg (100-pound) person     1.00  
 Incorrect 122(68.5) 86(68.3) 36(69.2)   7(63.6)
 Correct 56(31.5) 40(31.7) 16(30.8)   4(36.4)
A person with a higher percentage of body fat may weigh less than a person of the same size with a greater muscle mass     0.00  
 Incorrect 88(49.4) 72(57.1) 16(30.8)   2(18.2)
 Correct 90(50.6) 54(42.9) 36(69.2)   9(81.8)
A high fat meal, which is slowly digested, should be avoided before athletic events     0.19  
 Incorrect 59(33.1) 46(36.5) 13(25.0)   1(9.1)
 Correct 119(66.9) 80(63.5) 39(75.0)   10(90.9)
The pre-event meal should be eaten about 3-4 hours before competition     0.00  
 Incorrect 52(29.2) 46(36.5) 6(11.5)   5(45.5)
 Correct 126(70.8) 80(63.5) 46(88.5)   6(54.5)
Foods such as potatoes are best eaten after exercise     0.03  
 Incorrect 125(70.2) 82(65.1) 43(82.7)   7(63.6)
 Correct 53(29.8) 44(34.9) 9(17.3)   4(36.4)
Foods such as honey are best eaten after exercise     0.04  
 Incorrect 115(64.6) 75(59.5) 40(76.9)   9(81.8)
 Correct 63(35.4) 51(40.5) 12(23.1)   2(18.2)
NK Scored 22.08±5.32 21.89±4.94 22.55±6.16 0.18 24.18±5.25
% NK questions answered correctlye 50.18±12.08 49.74±11.22 51.25 ±14.00 0.18 54.96±11.93
NK Statusf     0.03  
 Adequate 35(20.1) 19(15.4) 16(31.4)   5(45.5)
 Inadequate 139(79.9) 104(84.6) 35(68.6)   6(54.5)
  1. aD1B: Division 1 Basketball
  2. b refers to differences between the two sex groups : p-value <0.05=statistical significance
  3. c Macronutrients (Except for water)
  4. d Equal to sum of correct answers
  5. e Equal to (NK score /44) *100
  6. f Adequate defined by ≥60% of NK questions answered correctly