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Table 1 Key considerations for future randomised controlled trials exploring the health effects of NO3 ingestion

From: Dietary nitrate and population health: a narrative review of the translational potential of existing laboratory studies




Consumption of a NO3 dose ≥8 mmol

NO3 form

Provision of NO3 salts or vegetables, with NO3 content independently verified

Study duration

Longer duration (e.g., months-to-years) warranted

Participant cohort

‘At risk’ cohort studied (e.g., individuals with hypertension for studies exploring effects of NO3 on cardiovascular disease risk)

Genetics/ microbiome

Consider recruitment of T allele carriers with G894T polymorphism in the eNOS gene


Consider recruitment of individuals with greater abundance of NO3 reducing oral bacteria


Avoidance of mouthwash prior to and during the study

Dietary controls

Avoidance of thiocyanate and sulphate rich foods in conjunction with NO3

Other lifestyle factors

Avoidance of smoking


Inclusion of hard clinical endpoints (e.g., CVD or dementia incidence) to build upon promising findings on risk factors for these conditions