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Table 1 Key considerations for future randomised controlled trials exploring the health effects of NO3 ingestion

From: Dietary nitrate and population health: a narrative review of the translational potential of existing laboratory studies

Consideration Recommendation
Dose Consumption of a NO3 dose ≥8 mmol
NO3 form Provision of NO3 salts or vegetables, with NO3 content independently verified
Study duration Longer duration (e.g., months-to-years) warranted
Participant cohort ‘At risk’ cohort studied (e.g., individuals with hypertension for studies exploring effects of NO3 on cardiovascular disease risk)
Genetics/ microbiome Consider recruitment of T allele carriers with G894T polymorphism in the eNOS gene
Microbiome Consider recruitment of individuals with greater abundance of NO3 reducing oral bacteria
Mouthwash Avoidance of mouthwash prior to and during the study
Dietary controls Avoidance of thiocyanate and sulphate rich foods in conjunction with NO3
Other lifestyle factors Avoidance of smoking
Outcomes Inclusion of hard clinical endpoints (e.g., CVD or dementia incidence) to build upon promising findings on risk factors for these conditions