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Table 1 Physical characteristics, knee extensor strength and quadriceps femoris size variables in sprinters and non-sprinters

From: Relationship of the knee extensor strength but not the quadriceps femoris muscularity with sprint performance in sprinters: a reexamination and extension

  Sprinters Non-sprinters P value Cohen’s d
Body height, cm 175.2 ± 5.4 174.1 ± 5.5 0.326 0.20
Body mass, kg 65.4 ± 6.1 65.9 ± 7.0 0.709 0.08
Knee extensor strength
 Isometric strength, Nm 272.9 ± 52.0 257.5 ± 47.5 0.140 0.31
 Slow-velocity Isokinetic strength, Nm 189.1 ± 38.8 173.8 ± 34.5 0.047 0.41
 Fast-velocity Isokinetic strength, Nm 128.0 ± 27.5 112.5 ± 23.2 < 0.001 0.60
Quadriceps femoris size
 Proximal CSA, cm2 53.8 ± 7.0 49.3 ± 8.1 < 0.001 0.61
 Middle CSA, cm2 79.0 ± 8.4 77.5 ± 10.6 0.443 0.19
 Distal CSA, cm2 58.2 ± 6.5 58.0 ± 9.1 0.923 0.02
 MV, cm3 2101.5 ± 250.1 2007.4 ± 270.1 0.080 0.36
Knee extensor strength/body mass
 Isometric strength, Nm/kg 4.2 ± 0.6 3.9 ± 0.6 0.050 0.41
 Slow-velocity Isokinetic strength, Nm/kg 2.9 ± 0.5 2.6 ± 0.5 0.017 0.50
 Fast-velocity Isokinetic strength, Nm/kg 2.0 ± 0.3 1.7 ± 0.3 < 0.001 0.69
Quadriceps femoris size/body mass
 Proximal CSA, cm2/kg2/3 3.3 ± 0.4 3.0 ± 0.5 0.001 0.68
 Middle CSA, cm2.kg2/3 4.9 ± 0.4 4.8 ± 0.5 0.241 0.26
 Distal CSA, cm2/kg2/3 3.6 ± 0.3 3.6 ± 0.5 0.731 0.08
 MV, cm3/kg 32.1 ± 2.7 30.5 ± 3.5 0.018 0.53
Knee extensor strength/quadriceps femoris MV
 Isometric strength, kNm/cm3 130.2 ± 22.1 128.5 ± 18.3 0.681 0.08
 Slow-velocity Isokinetic strength, kNm/cm3 90.1 ± 15.7 86.9 ± 14.3 0.299 0.21
 Fast-velocity isokinetic strength, kNm/cm3 61.1 ± 12.1 56.3 ± 10.3 0.044 0.42
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation, CSA cross-sectional area, MV muscle volume. The slow- and fast-velocity isokinetic knee extensor strengths were measured with 60º/s and 180º/s, respectively