Skip to main content

Table 1 Participants characteristics after randomly assigned to intervention group and control group

From: Effectiveness and safety of a simple home-based rehabilitation program in pulmonary arterial hypertension: an interventional pilot study

  intervention group control group p-value
Patients, n 16 23  
Age, years 48.88 ± 18.25 53.65 ± 12.79 NS
Female sex, % (n) 43.8 (7) 56.5 (13) NS
Height, cm 170.62 ± 7.82 164.99 ± 8.89 NS
Weight, kg 75.29 ± 19.1 75.43 ± 15.71 NS
Body Mass Index, kg/m2 25.79 ± 5.78 27.8 ± 6.04 NS
PAH etiology
 Idiopathic, % (n) 37.5 (6) 52.2 (12) NS
 Connective tissue diseases, % (n) 6.3 (1) 13 (3)
 Congenital heart disease, % (n) 50 (8) 30.4 (7)
 Heritable, % (n) 6.3 (1) 4.4 (1)
WHO-FC
 II, % (n) 50 (8) 61 (14) NS
 III, % (n) 50 (8) 39 (9)
Co-morbidities
 Hypertension, % (n) 31.3 (5) 34.8 (8) NS
 Diabetes mellitus, % (n) 6.3 (1) 13 (3) NS
 Hyperlipidemia, % (n) 25 (4) 26.1 (6) NS
 Atrial fibrillation, % (n) 18.8 (3) 17.4 (4) NS
PAH - specific therapy
 PDE5i, % (n) 50 (8) 30.4 (7) NS
 ERA, % (n) 18.8 (3) 4.4 (1)
 Prostanoid, % (n) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 PDE5i + ERA, % (n) 31.3 (5) 43.5 (10)
 PDE5i + Prostanoid, % (n) 0 (0) 17.4 (4)
 PDE5i + ERA + CCB, % (n) 0 (0) 4.4 (1)
Functional parameters
 PImax, cmH2O 45.31 ± 23.82 52.61 ± 18.55 NS
 PEmax, cmH2O 70.94 ± 32.75 79.52 ± 33.05 NS
 Dominant hand grip strength, kg 37.67 ± 12.32 35.96 ± 15.22 NS
 Non-dominant hand grip strength, kg 36.2 ± 14.35 35.14 ± 14.71 NS
 6MWD, m 436.81 ± 81.69 444.83 ± 87.98 NS
 METs 4.77 ± 1.38 3.95 ± 1.05 NS
 WorkLoad in AT, W 108.29 ± 51.99 97 ± 36.42 NS
 WorkLoad max, W 181.64 ± 80.41 149.23 ± 61.97 NS
 HR max 134.21 ± 26.73 133.54 ± 19.84 NS
 Peak VO2 in AT, ml/kg/min 11.74 ± 4.46 10.53 ± 3.91 NS
 Peak VO2, ml/kg/min 16.66 ± 4.78 14.14 ± 4.22 NS
 VCO2 1.24 ± 0.45 1.11 ± 0.47 NS
 VE, l/min 52.84 ± 14.58 48.21 ± 17.71 NS
 VE/VO2 slope 47.64 ± 17.74 41.96 ± 10.58 NS
 VE/VCO2 slope 44.45 ± 14.51 43.11 ± 11.88 NS
Echocardiography
 RV basal diameter, cm 4.51 ± 0.68 4.25 ± 0.72 NS
 RAA, cm2 24.11 ± 9.43 23.84 ± 7.48 NS
 TAPSE, mm 17.47 ± 2.8 20.62 ± 4.27 0.012
 IVC diameter, mm 16.75 ± 3.19 17.42 ± 3.56 NS
Hemodynamics (RHC)
 mPAP, mmHG 47.23 ± 14.86 45.84 ± 16.22 NS
 PAWP, mmHG 11.08 ± 2.47 10.11 ± 2.53 NS
 CO, l/min 4.95 ± 1.15 5.1 ± 1.18 NS
 CI, l/min/m2 2.67 ± 0.6 2.76 ± 0.58 NS
 PVR, Wood Units 7.55 ± 3.81 7.61 ± 4.49 NS
Laboratory tests
 NT-proBNP, pg/ml 190.83 ± 279.39 424.57 ± 412.23 0.048
 Creatinine, mg/dl 0.95 ± 0.23 0.94 ± 0.16 NS
Body Mass Composition
 Percentage of Body Fat, % 31.32 ± 9.08 32.33 ± 10.56 NS
 Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR) 0.96 ± 0.12 0.93 ± 0.1 NS
 Skeletal Muscle Mass, kg 27.54 ± 6.43 27.01 ± 6 NS
 Body Fat Mass, kg 24.54 ± 11.17 24.3 ± 10.03 NS
 Arm Circumference 32.28 ± 5.47 32.1 ± 4.3 NS
 Arm Muscle Circumference 25.29 ± 4.11 25.76 ± 2.98 NS
SF-36
 Physical Component Summary 40.11 ± 11.35 41.33 ± 8.45 NS
 Mental Component Summary 47.55 ± 13.33 46.3 ± 9.55 NS
Fatigue Severity Scale 4.08 ± 1.6 4.03 ± 1.75 NS
  1. Values are mean ± standard deviation
  2. 6MWD: 6-min walk distance; AT: anaerobic threshold; CCB: calcium channel blocker; CI: cardiac index; CO: cardiac output; ERA: endothelin receptor antagonist; HR: heart rate; IVC: inferior vena cava; MET: metabolic equivalent; mPAP: mean pulmonary arterial pressure; NS: not significant; PAH: pulmonary arterial hypertension; PAWP: pulmonary artery wedge pressure; PDE5i: phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor; PEmax: maximal expiratory pressure; PImax: maximal inspiratory pressure; PVR: pulmonary vascular resistance; RAA: right atrial area; RV: right ventricle; SF-36: 36-Item Short Form Health Survey; TAPSE: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; VCO2: carbon dioxide production; VE: ventilation; VE/VCO2: ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide; VE/VO2: ventilatory equivalent for oxygen; VO2: oxygen consumption; WHO-FC: world health organization - functional class