Skip to main content

Table 3 The effect of CF supplementation on exercise-induced changes in muscle function

From: The effects of cocoa flavanols on indices of muscle recovery and exercise performance: a narrative review

Reference Participants Nutritional Intervention Supplementation period Exercise stimulus Measure(s) Key outcome(s)
Corr, Field [80] 23 active (13 females, 10 males) participants
Age 24 ± 5 years
Stature 170 ± 9 cm
Mass 69 ± 12 kg
CF: CHO + protein cocoa beverage, 1245 mg (EPI: 150 mg) OR 830 mg (EPI: 99 mg)
CON: CHO + protein
Acute, immediately post-exercise Five sets of 10 maximal concentric-eccentric contractions of the knee flexors on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s MVC at 30° and 60°  ↔ between groups, large effect sizes observed 1245 vs CON and 830 vs CON
de Carvalho, Fisher [49] 13 trained males
Age 21 ± 2 years
Stature 180 ± 0.05 cm
Mass 87.02 ± 8.03 kg
CF: CHO + protein cocoa beverage, 306 mg CF per beverage
CON: cocoa based CHO + protein beverage, 0 mg CF
7 days, beverage consumed twice daily Five sets of 20 drop jumps from 0.6 m, 10 s between jumps and 2 min interset rest (i) MVC
(ii) Vertical jump
(i) ↔ between groups
(ii) ↔ between groups
Morgan, Wollman [48] 10 active males
Age 23 ± 3 years
Stature 184 ± 59 cm
Mass 85.3 ± 12.0 kg
Single leg 1RM 90.4 ± 19.0 kg
CF: 330 ml cacao juice, 74 mg CF (EPI: 8 mg, CAT: 43 mg)
CON: 330 ml CHO and flavour matched placebo, 0 mg CF
10 days supplementation (7 days pre-exercise, 3 days post) 10 sets of 10 single leg knee extensions at ~ 80% 1RM (i) MVC
(ii) CMJ
(i) ↔ between groups
(ii) ↑ recovery of CMJ
Peschek, Pritchett [79] 8 well-trained males
Age 25 ± 6 years
Stature 182.1 ± 6.3 cm
Mass 73.4 ± 7.0
O2max 64.4 ± 7.6 ml·kg−1 min−1
CF: Cocoa based CHO protein beverage with added cocoa, 350 mg CF
CON: cocoa based CHO protein beverage, 0 mg CF
Acute ingestion of two beverages separated by 2 h post-exercise protocol 30 min downhill running at a − 10% gradient at 70% O2max MVC  ↔ between groups
  1. CF, cocoa flavanols; EPI, epicatechin; CAT, catechin; CON, control; CHO, carbohydrate; 1RM, one rep max; MVC, maximal voluntary contraction; CMJ, countermovement jump; ↑, increase; ↔ , no significant effect/change