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Table 2 Characteristics of referees who are suffering from an injury and of those who did not. Data presented as mean ± standard deviation

From: Incidence of injury and pain in referees in German national handball leagues: a cohort study

   Referees with injury Referees without injury
Demographics Age [years] 31.3 ± 7.8 32.0 ± 6.8
Female gender [n] 4 3
BMI [kg/m2] 24.8 ± 2.7 24.9 ± 1.8
Training habits Daily training time [h] 1.5 ± 0.9 1.1 ± 0.7*
Endurance training [%] 61.9 ± 22.5 66.1 ± 24.9
Strength training [%] 29.2 ± 21.1 24.8 ± 21.4
Circuit training [%] 6.1 ± 10.8 5.8 ± 10.9
Referees' characteristics Experience [years] 15.7 ± 6.5 15.7 ± 6.4
Commitment international [%] 14 20
Commitment 1. league [%] 23 32
Commitment 2. league [%] 40 56
Commitment 3. league [%] 43 60
Commitment in 1. league women [%] 37 52
Match load [hours/week] 1.1 ± 0.4 1.0 ± 0.3
  1. *p < 0.05