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Table 3 Most common repetitive injury patterns in professional men’s basketball

From: Collision with opponents—but not foul play—dominates injury mechanism in professional men’s basketball

Injury pattern Injured body site Frequency of pattern: n/n total (%) Main mechanism: frequency within pattern (n/n total of pattern) Common injury types: frequency within pattern (n/n total of pattern) Foul play: frequency within pattern (n/n total of pattern) Detailed mechanism: frequency within pattern (n/n total of pattern) Movement pattern: frequency within pattern (n/n total of pattern)
Basic Basketball-specific
(1) ‘Elbow-to-head injury’ Head 11/12 (92%) Contact Concussion (5/11), fracture (4/11), mainly of nasal septum or nasal bone (3/4) Sometimes (fouled 2/11; own foul 1/11) Hit or being pushed by an opponent (9/11), mainly by elbow-to-head contact (7/9) Standing (3/11), being mid-air (3/11) Rebounding (4/11)
(2) ‘Shoulder collision injury’ Shoulder 7/10 (70%) Contact AC joint separation (4/7) Rare (fouled 1/7; own foul 0/7) Collision with opponent (4/7), often with shoulder-to-shoulder contact (3/4) Running (5/7) Screen defense (4/7)
(3) ‘Overload thigh muscle injury’ Thigh 9/19 (47%) Non-contact Muscle tear (6/9) No Overload (8/9) Sprinting (2/9), stopping (2/9) Other 1 on 1 situation (4/9), penetration (3/9)
(4) ‘Knee-to-thigh muscle injury’ Thigh 6/19 (32%) Contact Muscle tear (3/6), contusion (3/6) Rare (fouled 1/6; own foul 0/16) Collision with opponent (4/6), mainly by knee-to-thigh contact (3/4); hit or being pushed by an opponent with knee-to-thigh-contact (2/6) Running (2/6) Other 1 on 1 situation (2/6)
(5) ‘Collision-with-opponent knee injury’ Knee 16/34 (47%) Contact (Partial) rupture of knee ligaments (8/16), mainly of the MCL (5/8) Rare (fouled 0/16; own foul 2/16) Collision with opponent (12/16), mainly by knee-to-knee contact (4/12); collision with teammate (4/16), mainly by knee-to-trunk contact (2/4) Standing (6/16), landing (5/16) Rebounding (4/16)
(6) ‘Collision-and-twist knee injury’ Knee 11/34 (32%) Indirect contact (Partial) rupture of knee ligaments (5/11) Sometimes (fouled 1/11; own foul 2/11) Collision with opponent (10/11), resulting in twisting of the knee (7/10) Landing (4/11),side-step (3/11) Other 1 on 1 situation (5/11)
(7) ‘Non-contact knee injury’ Knee 7/34 (21%) Non-contact (Partial) rupture of knee ligaments (4/7), mainly of the MCL (2/4) and the ACL (2/4) No Twisting of the knee (3/7), overload (3/7) Change of direction (3/7), jumping (2/7) Rebounding (2/7), other 1 on 1 situation (2/7)
(8) ‘Foot-to-foot ankle injury’ Ankle 45/59 (76%) Contact Sprain or partial/full tear of medial or lateral ligaments (41/45) Rare (fouled, 5/45; own foul, 1/45) Collision with opponent with foot-to-foot contact (33/45), collision with teammate with foot-to-foot contact (7/45) Landing (25/45), running (11/45) Rebounding (9/45), lay up or dunking (7/45)
  1. Foul play was classified as 0% = no, 1–25% = rare, 26–50% = sometimes, 51–75% = common, and 76–100% = very common
  2. ACL anterior cruciate ligament, PCL posterior cruciate ligament, MCL medial collateral ligament, AC joint acromioclavicular joint