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Table 4 Change in biomarkers

From: Effects of an overnight high-carbohydrate meal on muscle glycogen after rapid weight loss in male collegiate wrestlers

Variable BL R0 R13 Reference ranges
Blood
Hemoglobin (g dL−1) 15.0 ± 0.7 15.6 ± 0.9* 14.8 ± 0.7 13.5–17.5
Hematocrit (%) 45.0 ± 1.9 46.5 ± 2.5 44.6 ± 1.7 39.7–52.4
Total protein (g dL−1) 7.3 ± 0.3 8.2 ± 0.6* 7.2 ± 0.4 6.7–8.3
Albumin (g dL−1) 4.6 ± 0.1 5.1 ± 0.3* 4.5 ± 0.1 3.8–5.3
Creatinine (mg dL−1) 0.87 ± 0.11 1.06 ± 0.14 0.94 ± 0.11 0.61–1.04
Uric acid (mg dL−1) 5.5 ± 0.7 7.8 ± 1.1* 6.3 ± 1.0* 3.8–7.0
Urea nitrogen (mg dL−1) 15.3 ± 4.5 22.5 ± 4.0 17.0 ± 2.7 8.0–20.0
Glucose (mg dL−1) 87 ± 5 81 ± 7* 87 ± 5 70–109
Insulin (μU mL−1) 4.4 ± 1.9 2.3 ± 1.0 3.6 ± 1.3 1.7–10.4
Triglyceride (mg dL−1) 118 ± 56 44 ± 12* 55 ± 11* 30–149
Free fatty acid (mEq L−1) 0.25 ± 0.05 0.73 ± 0.37* 0.35 ± 0.10 0.10–0.90
Total cholesterol (mg dL−1) 179 ± 27 199 ± 25* 175 ± 20 120–219
HDL-cholesterol (mg dL−1) 60 ± 8 71 ± 7* 62 ± 7 40–85
LDL-cholesterol (mg dL−1) 97 ± 24 115 ± 23* 98 ± 17 65–139
Sodium (mEq L−1) 140 ± 2 142 ± 1* 139 ± 2 137–147
Potassium (mEq L−1) 4.7 ± 0.3 4.5 ± 0.2 4.7 ± 0.3 3.5–5.0
Chlorine (mEq L−1) 103 ± 1 104 ± 2 102 ± 2 98–108
Magnesium (mEq L−1) 2.2 ± 0.1 2.5 ± 0.2* 2.2 ± 0.2 1.9–2.5
Arginine vasopressin (pg mL−1) 9.1 ± 7.0 16.1 ± 8.2 10.4 ± 6.0 ≤ 4.2
Testosterone (ng mL−1) 6.68 ± 1.45 4.75 ± 2.66* 6.27 ± 1.04 1.92–8.84
Urine
Urinary specific gravity 1.025 ± 0.010 1.037 ± 0.004* 1.026 ± 0.010 1.006–1.030
Osmotic pressure (mOs mL−1) 886 ± 297 1166 ± 140* 809 ± 305 50–1300
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 9). *p < 0.05 versus BL; p < 0.05 versus R0