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Table 2 Times for 10-m, 20-m, 30-m and 40-m sprint for the U14, U16 y U18 soccer players (mean ± standard deviation), together with effect size differences and results of ANOVA and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling age peak height velocity, body mass and body mass index

From: Age-related differences in linear sprint in adolescent female soccer players

Variables Age groups ANOVA Bonferroni’s post hoc test/
ES (magnitude of difference)
ANCOVA (APHV)
F/p
ANCOVA (BM)
F/p
ANCOVA (BMI)
F/p
U14 U16 U18 F p
10 m sprint (s) 2.12 ± 0.10 2.04 ± 0.09 2.02 ± 0.12 4.443  < 0.05* 1–2 (p < 0.05)* (ES: 0.89)
2–3 (p > 0.05) (ES 0.03)
1–3 (p < 0.05)* (ES 0.93)
1–2 F: 9.99 (p < 0.01)**
2–3 F: 4.72 (p < 0.05)*
1–3 F: 12.8 (p < 0.01)**
1–2 F: 0.36 (p > 0.05)
2–3 F: 0.07 (p > 0.05)
1–3 F: 0.52 (p > 0.05)
1–2 F: 0.39 (p > 0.05)
2–3 F: 0.07 (p > 0.05)
1–3 F: 0.54 (p > 0.05)
20 m sprint (s) 3.67 ± 0.14 3.55 ± 0.15 3.52 ± 0.18 3.626  < 0.05* 1–2 (p < 0.05)* (ES 0.69)
2–3 (p > 0.05) (ES 0.09)
1–3 (p < 0.05)* (ES: 0.93)
1–2 F: 10.9 (p < 0.01)**
2–3 F: 6.61 (p < 0.05)*
1–3 F: 3.04 (p > 0.05)
1–2 F: 0.05 (p > 0.05)
2–3 F: 0.03 (p > 0.05)
1–3 F: 0.07 (p > 0.05)
1–2 F: 1.10 (p > 0.05)
2–3 F: 0.51 (p > 0.05)
1–3 F: 1.31 (p > 0.05)
30 m sprint (s) 5.18 ± 0.19 5.02 ± 0.24 4.96 ± 0.26 3.380  < 0.05* 1–2 (p < 0.05)* (ES:0.64)
2–3 (p > 0.05) (ES: 0.11)
1–3 (p < 0.05)* (ES: 0.92)
1–2 F: 10.4 (p < 0.01)**
2–3 F: 6.51 (p < 0.05)*
1–3 F: 11.4 (p < 0.01)**
1–2 F: 0.10 (p > 0.05)
2–3 F: 0.14 (p > 0.05)
1–3 F: 0.03 (p > 0.05)
1–2 F: 1.14 (p > 0.05)
2–3 F: 0.04 (p > 0.05)
1–3 F: 1.39 (p > 0.05)
40 m sprint (s) 6.84 ± 0.27 6.54 ± 0.34 6.41 ± 0.34 6.169  < 0.01** 1–2 (p < 0.05)* (ES: 0.85)
2–3 (p > 0.05) (ES: 0.17)
1–3 (p < 0.01)** (ES: 1.33)
1–2 F: 12.5 (p < 0.01)**
2–3 F: 6.38 (p < 0.05)*
1–3 F: 18.1 (p < 0.01)**
1–2 F: 0.71 (p > 0.05)
2–3 F: 0.04 (p > 0.05)
1–3 F: 0.85 (p > 0.05)
1–2 F: 0.94 (p > 0.05)
2–3 F: 0.04 (p > 0.05)
1–3 F: 1.16 (p > 0.05)
20 m flying (s) 3.11 ± 0.13 2.82 ± 0.64 2.61 ± 0.75 1.695 0.12 1–2 (p > 0.05) (ES: 0.62)
2–3 (p > 0.05) (ES: 0.30)
1–3 (p > 0.05) (ES: 0.92)
1–2 F: 4.79 (p < 0.05)*
2–3 F: 3.98 (p < 0.05)*
1–3 F: 4.34 (p < 0.05)*
1–2 F: 2.33 (p > 0.05)
2–3 F: 0.35 (p > 0.05)
1–3 F: 5.73 (p < 0.05)*
1–2 F: 0.26 (p > 0.05)
2–3 F: 0.02 (p > 0.05)
1–3 F: 0.41 (p > 0.05)
  1. ES: effect size; APHV: age peak height velocity; BM: body mass; BMI: body mass index; 1–2: U14 versus U16, 2–3 U16 versus U18; 1–3 U14 versus U18
  2. *Significant p < 0.05
  3. **Significant p < 0.01