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Table 2 Means and standard deviations for measures in groups at pretests and posttests

From: Physical and psychological health outcomes of a sitting light volleyball intervention program on adults with physical disabilities: a non-randomized controlled pre-post study

Measures CG (N = 14) SLVB (N = 18) F p
Pretest Posttest Pretest Posttest   
Skinfold test (mm) 15.94 (1.35) 14.38 (.77) 19.27 (1.19) 14.23 (.68) 4.17 .050*
Handgrip Strength test
 Dominant hand 25.94 (2.43) 25.43 (2.58) 27.47 (2.14) 28.16 (2.28) 1.15 .293
 Non-dominant hand 23.46 (2.72) 24.22 (3.00) 26.14 (2.39) 28.47 (2.64) 1.77 .194
Dumbbell Press (frequency)
 Dominant hand 18.40 (3.39) 18.57 (3.52) 23.80 (2.99) 28.06 (3.11) 3.93 .057
 Non-dominant hand 13.58 (3.54) 14.97 (3.76) 21.05 (3.12) 23.24 (3.31) .12 .728
 Multistage  Field Test (m) 340.69 (71.79) 352.18 (86.13) 317.42(63.31) 458.97(75.95) 4.27 .048*
Shoulder stretch (mm)
 Right − 127.10 (34.52) − 131.98 (37.66) − 113.37 (30.44) − 96.79 (33.21) .49 .489
 Left − 162.49 (30.84) − 174.62 (39.15) − 164.17 (27.19) − 110.29 (34.53) 1.52 .227
PACES (Score) 4.57 (.22) 4.65 (.23) 5.22 (.20) 6.10 (.20) 5.34 .028*
  1. *p < .05; **p < .01; SLVB, Sitting Light Volleyball group; CG, Control Group. Adjusted via ANCOVA for BMI