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Table 2 Baseline and Week-4 values of inflammatory markers, anti-inflammatory proteins, lung function, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D

From: The interaction effect of aerobic exercise and vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory factors, anti-inflammatory proteins, and lung function in male smokers: a randomized controlled trial

Variables AE + VitD(n = 10) AE(n = 10) VitD(n = 10) C(n = 10) P#
TNF-α, (ng/ml−1)      
Baseline 73.25 ± 12.40 75.40 ± 15.05 73.99 ± 13.52 74.10 ± 10.67 0.001*
Week 4 55.05 ± 11.41a 66.80 ± 16.66b 67.70 ± 11.18b 74.93 ± 9.49b  
P¥ 0.001* 0.009* 0.020* 0.394  
IL-6, (pg/ml−1)      
Baseline 5.87 ± 1.61 6.30 ± 2.02 5.95 ± 2.11 6.16 ± 1.39 0.079
Week 4 4.98 ± 1.37 5.93 ± 1.67 5.70 ± 1.98 6.31 ± 1.37  
P 0.004* 0.039* 0.049* 0.097  
CC16, (ng/ml−1)      
Baseline 7.19 ± 1.28 7.34 ± 1.07 7.24 ± 1.81 7.25 ± 1.05 0.064
Week 4 6.42 ± 1.06 7.11 ± 1.02 6.87 ± 1.08 7.34 ± 0.97  
P 0.001* 0.005* 0.025* 0.688  
SP-D, (ng/ml−1)      
Baseline 69.80 ± 13.70 71.83 ± 12.99 70.75 ± 10.43 71.20 ± 11.56 0.052
Week 4 62.06 ± 9.41 69.50 ± 11.10 68.40 ± 8.39 72.30 ± 11.20  
P 0.011* 0.085 0.084 0.240  
CC16/SP-D      
Baseline 0.104 ± 0.014 0.102 ± 0.010 0.101 ± 0.005 0.101 ± 0.009 0.969
Week 4 0.104 ± 0.107 0.102 ± 0.008 0.099 ± 0.005 0.102 ± 0.009  
P 0.817 0.810 0.393 0.903  
FEV1, %      
Baseline 87.29 ± 7.51 88.30 ± 10.54 87.55 ± 8.48 86.70 ± 11.14 0.071
Week 4 91.70 ± 5.86 91.80 ± 8.23 89.21 ± 7.85 86.44 ± 11.30  
P 0.001* 0.021* 0.121 0.534  
FVC, %      
Baseline 94.39 ± 7.41 94.81 ± 12.69 92.85 ± 6.93 93.15 ± 10.10 0.063
Week 4 97.97 ± 6.94 97.65 ± 9.51 93.95 ± 7.99 92.55 ± 10.73  
P 0.002* 0.035* 0.313 0.133  
FEV1/FVC, %      
Baseline 92.45 ± 2.59 93.42 ± 3.97 94.20 ± 4.08 92.89 ± 3.59 0.218
Week 4 93.78 ± 3.71 94.17 ± 3.99 95.06 ± 4.11 93.31 ± 4.22  
P 0.153 0.397 0.643 0.478  
1,25(OH)2D, (ng/ml−1)      
Baseline 23.90 ± 5.72 23.38 ± 6.65 24.51 ± 7.82 24.73 ± 7.60 0.085
Week 4 27.48 ± 6.85 24.15 ± 5.51 27.55 ± 8.05 24.64 ± 7.18  
P 0.002* 0.237 0.001* 0.924  
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD, #ANCOVA (Analysis of Covariance). Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparison, different letters means statistically difference with Bonferroni adjustment
  2. ¥Paired sample T-test, * < 0.05, There is significant difference