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Table 1 Characteristics of studies and variables used for workload estimation

From: Quantification of the demands of cricket bowling and the relationship to injury risk: a systematic review

Study Design type N Participant characteristics
(bowler type; level; age; gender; country of origin)
Study focus FITT-VP classification of extracted variables
Alway et al. [17] Prospective cohort 368 Fast bowlers; elite; 25 ± 6 yr;
male; UK
Injury risk Frequency—Balls bowled
Bayne et al. [30] Prospective cohort 25 Fast bowlers; mixed; Inj: 16 ± 1 yr, Non-inj: 16 ± 1 yr; male; Australia Injury Frequency—Balls bowled
Bliss et al. [65] Longitudinal observational 13 Seam bowlers; elite; 28 ± 4.2 yr; male; UK Physiological match demands Volume – GPS measured distance and accelerations
Burnett, Elliott & Marshall [31] Observational cohort 9 Fast bowlers; emerging elite; 18 ± 1 yr; male; Australia Fatigue effects on bowling technique Frequency—Balls bowled
Intensity—Blood lactate; heart rate; BRV
Cooke et al. [16] Observational cohort 22 Bowler type NS; elite; 24 ± 9 yr; male; UK Differences in fatigue Frequency—Balls bowled
Intensity—RPE
Volume—Playerload™
Dennis et al. [26] Prospective cohort 90 Fast bowlers; elite; 18–38 yr; male; Australia Injury risk Frequency—Balls bowled
Dennis et al. [25] Prospective cohort 44 Fast bowlers; sub-elite; 15 ± 1 yr; male; Australia Injury risk Frequency—Bowling logbook
Dennis et al. [36] Prospective cohort 91 Fast bowlers; emerging elite; 12–33 yr; male; Australia Injury risk identification Frequency—Bowling logbook; balls bowled
Intensity—BRV
Duffield et al. [38] Observational cohort 6 Med-fast bowlers; elite; 23 ± 3 yr; male; Australia Physiological response & performance Intensity—BRV; RPE
Feros et al. [50] RCT 12 Fast bowlers; sub-elite; 23.7 ± 7.5 yr; male; Australia Physiology and performance Intensity – BRV; RPE
Forrest et al. [35] Cluster-RCT 65 Fast bowlers; sub-elite; 15.6 ± 6 yr; male; Australia Injury risk factors Frequency – Bowling logbook
Intensity – RPE
Forrest et al. [49] Cluster-RCT 64 Fast bowlers; sub-elite; 15.6 ± 6 yr; male; Australia Kinematics and injury risk Intensity—RPE
Volume – GPS measured distance
Gabbett et al. [15] Prospective cohort 28 Fast bowlers; elite; 26 ± 5 yr; male; Australia Injury risk Volume—ACWR
Garcia-Byrne et al. 2020 [59] Retrospective cohort 34 Fast bowlers; elite and emerging elite; elite 26 ± 4 yr, emerging elite 16 ± 1 yr; female, Australia Load measuring using technology Volume – GPS measured distance; Playerload™
Gregory et al. [32] Prospective cohort 112 70 fast bowlers, 42 spin bowlers; emerging elite; 12–21 yr; male; UK Injury comparison Frequency—Balls bowled
Gregory et al. [37] Prospective cohort 70 Fast bowlers; emerging elite; 15 ± 2 yr; male; UK Injury risk Frequency – Bowling logbook; Balls bowled
Greig & Child [14] Repeated measures, field based 12 Fast bowlers; emerging elite; 19 ± 1 yr; male; UK Performance & loading Intensity—BRV
Volume—Playerload™
Greig & Nagy [51] Repeated measures, field based 10 Fast bowlers; emerging elite; 18 ± 1 yr; male; UK Efficacy of technology in load quantification Volume Playerload™
Hulin et al. [23] Prospective cohort 28 Fast bowlers; elite; 26 ± 5 yr; male; Australia Injury risk Frequency—Balls bowled
Intensity—RPE
Volume—ACWR
Johnstone et al. [39] Observational cohort 7 Fast-medium bowlers; elite; 25 ± 5 yr; male; UK Physiological profiles of bowlers Intensity—Heart rate
Jowitt et al. [58] Cross-sectional 35 Fast bowlers; elite; 18–35 yr; 30 male, 5 female; UK Detection of bowling events using technology Volume – GPS measured distance
McGrath et al. [40] Cross-sectional 17 Bowler type NS; sub-elite; Age NS; male; New Zealand Detection of bowling events using technology Intensity—BRV
McNamara et al. [22] Observational cohort 26 9 fast bowlers, 17 non-fast bowlers; emerging elite; 18 ± 1 yr; male; Australia Fatigue response Volume—Playerload™
McNamara et al. [52] Observational cohort 12 Fast bowlers; mixed; 24 ± 4 yr; male; Australia Detection of bowling events using technology Volume—Playerload™
McNamara et al. [42] Repeated measures observational 7 Fast bowlers; elite; 22 ± 3 yr; male; Australia Performance variability Intensity—BRV
Volume—Playerload™
McNamara et al. [41] Observational cohort 12 Fast bowlers; elite; 20 ± 2 yr; male; Australia Load measuring using technology Intensity—BRV
Volume—Playerload™
Minett et al. [44] Randomised, repeated measures, cross-over 10 Med-fast bowlers; mixed; 23 ± 8 yr; male; Australia Physiology and performance Intensity—BRV
Minett et al. [43] Randomised, repeated measures, cross-over 8 Med-fast bowlers; mixed; 23 ± 5 yr; male; Australia Physiology and performance Intensity—BRV
Orchard et al. [24] Prospective cohort 129 Fast bowlers; elite; Age NS; male; Australia Injury risk Frequency—Balls bowled
Orchard et al. [20] Prospective cohort 235 Fast bowlers; elite; Age NS; male; Australia Injury risk Frequency—Balls bowled
Orchard et al. [21] Prospective cohort 235 Fast bowlers; elite; Age NS; male; Australia Injury risk Frequency—Balls bowled
Patel et al. [33] Prospective cohort 438 Bowler type NS; emerging elite; Age NS; male; New Zealand Talent identification Frequency—Balls bowled
Petersen et al. [55] Observational cohort 1 Bowler type NS; elite; Age NS; male; Australia Variability in movement patterns Volume—GPS measured distance
Petersen et al. [53] Longitudinal observational 18 Bowler type NS; elite; Age NS; male; Australia Quantification of positional movement patterns Volume—GPS measured distance
Petersen et al. [2] Observational cohort 42 Bowler type NS; emerging elite; 22 ± 3 yr; male; Australia Variability in movement patterns Volume—GPS measured distance
Petersen et al. [54] Longitudinal observational 54 Bowler type NS; elite; International: 30 ± 4 yr, State: 27 ± 3 yr; male; Australia Comparison of movement patterns between 1-day and test matches Volume—GPS measured distance
Petersen et al. [45] Longitudinal observational 42 Bowler type NS; emerging elite; 22 ± 3 yr; male; Australia Training and game demands Intensity—Blood lactate; heart rate
Volume—GPS measured distance
Pote & Christie [13] Longitudinal observational 12 Bowler type NS; emerging elite; 16–19 yr; male; South Africa Workload management Frequency—Balls bowled
Intensity—RPE
Volume—ACWR
Rowlands et al. [34] Observational cohort NS Bowler type NS; not specified; not specified; male; Australia Bowling action analysis Frequency – Balls bowled
(not reported in results)
Sholto-Douglas et al. [57] Retrospective cohort 7 Fast bowlers; elite; Age NS; male; Australia Movement patterns in T20 games Volume – GPS measured distance
Soomro et al. [19] Survey 548 All players; mixed; Age NS; male; Australia Coaching workload management practices Frequency—Balls bowled
Stretch & Lambert 1999 [46] Observational cohort 21 Fast bowlers; emerging elite; Junior: 12–13 yr, Senior: 18–22 yr; male; Australia Fatigue response Intensity—Heart rate
Tallent et al. [12] Prospective cohort 8 Bowler type NS; elite; 22 ± 3 yr; male; UK Quantification of workload and cognitive function Intensity – VAS
Volume—GPS measured distance
Tysoe et al. [27] Prospective cohort 45 Fast bowlers; elite; 27 ± 5 yr; male; UK Workload management Volume—ACWR
Vickery et al. [48] Observational cohort 11 Fast/spin bowlers; sub-elite; 22 ± 4 yr; male; Australia Physiological responses and movement demands Intensity—Blood lactate; heart rate; RPE
Volume—GPS measured distance
Vickery et al. [47] Observational cohort 18 Fast-med bowlers; elite; 21 ± 4 yr; male; Australia Association of internal and external measures of load Intensity—Heart rate; RPE
Volume—Playerload™
Vickery et al. [56] Prospective cohort 42 Fast/spin bowlers; emerging elite; 23 ± 4 yr; male; Australia Comparison of training and match play physical demands Intensity—Heart rate; RPE
Volume—GPS measured distance
Warren et al. [18] Prospective cohort 23 Fast bowlers; emerging elite; 17 ± 1 yr; male; UK Injury risk Frequency—Balls bowled
Volume—ACWR
  1. Age reported as mean ± SD or as a range. Note: ACWR—acute:chronic workload ratio; BRV—ball release velocity; FITT-VP—Frequency, intensity, time, type, volume, progression; GPS—global positioning system; NS—Not specified; RPE—rating of perceived exertion; UK—United Kingdom; VAS—visual analogue scale