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Table 2 Descriptive analysis and significant correlations of muscle strength with body-size variables in older men and women (n = 94)

From: Identification of muscle weakness in older adults from normalized upper and lower limbs strength: a cross-sectional study

Variables Older Men (n = 29) Older Women (n = 65) Correlation (r) with Muscle Strength
M 95% CI SD M 95% CI SD HGS (kg) Knee Extension
LL UL LL UL 1RM (kg) PT (Nm)
Age (years) 71.2 68.5 73.9 7.1 69.7 68.2 71.2 6.1    
Mini-Mental State Examination (0–19) 17.6 16.9 18.2 1.8 17.4 16.9 17.8 1.8    
Body-size variables            
Anthropometry            
 Body mass (kg) 73.0 67.7 78.3 13.9 66.9 64.0 69.8 11.6 0.37 0.39 0.40
 Height (m) 1.7 1.6 1.7 0.1 1.6 1.5 1.6 0.1 0.71 0.62 0.68
Circumferences (cm)            
 Forearm 26.0 25.2 26.8 2.0 23.8 23.3 24.4 2.2 0.50 0.40 0.46
 Calf 35.8 34.4 37.1 3.5 34.8 34.1 35.5 2.9 0.34* 0.37 0.37
 Chest 97.8 94.3 101.4 9.4 93.2 91.3 95.1 7.7 0.26* 0.32* 0.36
 Waist 92.1 87.8 96.5 11.4 86.5 84.0 89.0 10.0   0.26* 0.30*
Skinfold thickness (mm)            
 Triceps 15.2 12.9 17.5 6.0 25.8 24.1 27.4 6.7 –0.39 –0.22* –0.25*
 Biceps 8.0 6.7 9.4 3.5 15.4 14.0 16.7 5.4 –0.40 –0.28* –0.31*
 Midaxillary 18.5 15.5 21.5 7.8 23.9 22.2 25.6 6.9 –0.26*   
 Pectoral 16.8 14.7 18.9 5.5 14.6 13.0 16.2 6.4 0.21*   
 Suprailiac 19.7 15.8 23.5 10.1 29.7 27.8 31.7 7.8 –0.29*   
 Abdominal (vertical) 26.2 23.1 29.3 8.1 33.7 31.5 35.9 8.8 –0.22*   
 Thigh (midline) 17.9 15.0 20.8 7.6 32.1 29.5 34.8 10.7 –0.35* –0.27* –0.38
 Medial calf 11.8 9.3 14.3 6.6 23.8 21.9 25.7 7.6 –0.41 –0.28* –0.33*
Bone breadths (mm)            
 Biacromial 39.9 38.9 41.0 2.8 37.1 36.6 37.6 2.1 0.63 0.58 0.60
 Bitrochanteric 33.7 33.1 34.3 1.7 33.4 32.8 34.0 2.3   0.20* 0.22*
 Ankle (bimalleolar) 7.0 6.8 7.2 0.5 6.3 6.2 6.4 0.4 0.59 0.47 0.52
 Elbow 6.7 6.5 6.9 0.5 5.8 5.7 6.0 0.5 0.53 0.40 0.44
 Wrist 5.7 5.6 5.9 0.4 5.1 5.0 5.1 0.4 0.52 0.37 0.44
 Chest 30.9 29.9 31.9 2.6 27.8 27.4 28.3 1.8 0.58 0.49 0.59
Segment lenghts (cm)            
 Knee height 53.5 52.4 54.5 2.7 49.5 49.0 50.0 2.1 0.62 0.55 0.58
 Half arm span 87.3 85.5 89.2 4.8 80.8 79.8 81.7 3.8 0.71 0.62 0.58
Body indexes            
Derived from anthropometry            
 Body mass*height (kg*m) 123.3 112.6 134.1 28.2 104.7 99.8 109.7 20.0 0.49 0.49 0.52
 SA (m2) 1.9 1.8 1.9 0.2 1.7 1.7 1.8 0.2 0.47 0.48 0.50
 MAMC (cm) 24.2 23.0 25.3 2.9 21.9 21.3 22.5 2.6 0.45 0.39 0.45
 CAMA (cm2) 37.1 32.7 41.6 11.7 32.2 29.9 34.5 9.2 0.37 0.33 0.40
 AFA (cm2) 16.3 14.0 18.6 6.0 22.9 21.3 24.6 6.6 –0.23*   
 FFM(LEAN et al. [44]) (kg) 52.1 49.6 54.6 6.6 37.1 36.0 38.2 4.6 0.75 0.66 0.67
 Fat mass(LEAN et al. [44]) (kg) 20.9 17.7 24.0 8.2 29.8 27.9 31.7 7.8 –0.22*   
Derived from body composition            
 Left arm LST (kg) 2.4 2.1 2.6 0.6 1.5 1.4 1.6 0.3 0.72 0.62 0.66
 Right arm LST (kg) 2.8 2.5 3.0 0.6 1.8 1.7 1.9 0.4 0.72 0.61 0.60
 Left leg LST (kg) 7.7 7.1 8.3 1.6 5.5 5.3 5.8 1.0 0.67 0.64 0.64
 Right leg LST (kg) 8.0 7.4 8.6 1.6 5.7 5.4 5.9 1.0 0.70 0.64 0.65
 Arms LST (kg) 5.1 4.7 5.6 1.2 3.3 3.2 3.5 0.7 0.74 0.63 0.64
 Legs LST (kg) 15.7 14.6 16.9 3.1 11.2 10.7 11.6 1.9 0.69 0.65 0.66
 ASM (kg) 20.9 19.3 22.5 4.2 14.5 13.9 15.1 2.5 0.72 0.65 0.66
 ASM/height2 (kg/m2) 7.3 7.0 7.7 1.0 6.0 5.7 6.2 0.9 0.55 0.51 0.48
 FFM(Baumgartner et al. [46]) (kg) 54.3 51.3 57.3 7.7 45.5 44.0 47.0 6.1 0.60 0.55 0.57
 FFM(DXA) (kg) 51.5 47.9 55.0 9.4 38.8 37.4 40.3 5.8 0.68 0.59 0.61
 Fat mass(DXA) (kg) 21.5 18.8 24.2 7.1 28.1 26.3 29.9 7.2 –0.20*   
Mobility            
 Six-minute walk test (6MWT) 464.7 431.1 498.3 88.3 412.7 389.9 435.5 92.0    
 Functional limitation (6MWT < 400 m); % 24.1%     38.5%       
Muscle strength            
 HGS (kg) 36.4 33.1 39.7 8.6 24.1 23.0 25.2 4.5    
 1RM (kg) 66.8 56.9 76.7 26.0 40.8 36.9 44.8 15.9    
 No. of reps to estimate 1RM 7.2 6.3 8.1 2.3 6.6 6.0 7.2 2.4    
PT (Nm) 119.8 102.4 137.2 45.6 73.2 66.8 79.6 25.9    
  1. M mean, CI confidence interval, LL lower limit, UL upper limit, SD standard deviation, HGS handgrip strength, 1RM one maximum repetition measurement for knee extensors, PT isokinetic knee extension peak torque at 60º/s, Nm Newton meter, SA human body surface area, MAMC mid-arm muscle circumference, CAMA corrected arm muscle area, AFA arm fat area, FFM fat-free mass, LST lean soft tissue, ASM appendicular skeletal muscle mass, DXA Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
  2. *p < 0.05 and p < 0.001 (statistically significant correlation)