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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants with COVID-19 patients: intervention versus control group (N = 137)

From: Effects of short-term breathing exercises on respiratory recovery in patients with COVID-19: a quasi-experimental study

Variables Intervention group
n = 79
Control group
n = 58
P valuea
Demographics    
Age, mean (± SD) 50.1 (10.5) 51.5 (10.4) 0.43
Sex (men), n (%) 55 (69.6) 36 (62.1) 0.36
BMI, kg/m2, mean (± SD) 25.7 (4.6)
missing (n = 5)
27.1 (5.4)
missing (n = 9)
0.17
Employment status (employed) 61 (77.8) 47 (81)
missing (n = 3)
0.65
Education    0.63
 Secondary or above, n (%) 69 (87.3) 49 (84.5)  
 Primary or no formal education, n (%) 10 (12.7) 9 (15.5)  
Current smoker (yes), n (%) 15 (19) 10 (17.2) 0.86
Haematological/biochemical data    
Hemoglobin, gm/dL, mean (± SD) 12.84 (2.1) 12.67 (1.8) 0.62
Total WBC, mcL, mean (± SD) 8260.8 (4073.1) 9818.9 (4562.2) 0.04
 Neutrophil, mcL, mean (± SD) 6335.1 (3987.1)
missing (n = 1)
7533.3 (4287.9) 0.10
 Lymphocytes, mcL, mean (± SD) 1549.4 (735.6)
missing (n = 1)
1759.9 (1191.3) 0.21
SGPT, units /L, mean (± SD) 50.45 (27.6)
missing (n = 29)
39.03 (27.5)
missing (n = 19)
0.06
Serum D-Dimer, μg/ml,mean (± SD) 0.41 (0.5)
missing (n = 9)
0.47 (0.4)
missing (n = 20)
0.48
Serum ferritin, ng/ml, mean (± SD) 293.6 (294.7)
missing (n = 9)
290.0 (367.8)
missing (n = 20)
0.95
C-reactive protein, mg/L, mean (± SD) 16.9 (27.9)
missing (n = 9)
19.7 (27.9)
missing (n = 20)
0.58
Disease related data/comorbidities    
Need of oxygen supplementation    0.15
 1–4 L/min, n (%) 62 (78.5) 51 (87.9)  
 5–10 L/min, n (%) 17 (21.5) 7 (12.1)  
Productive cough (yes), n (%) 21(26.6) 18 (31) 0.57
Able to clear secretions independently (yes), n (%) 18 (22.8) 18 (31) 0.32
COPD or other respiratory diseases, (yes), n (%) 24 (30.4) 18 (31) 0.54
Other major comorbidities    
Type 2 diabetes, n (%) 49 (62) 40 (69) 0.47
Hypertension, n (%) 51 (64.6) 38 (65.5) 0.52
Ischemic heart disease, n (%) 5 (6.3) 6 (10.3) 0.29
Kidney diseases, n (%) 6 (8.6) 4 (6.9) 0.49
Liver diseases, n (%) 2 (3.0) 2 (3.4) 0.63
Malignant tumor, n (%) 3 (4.5) 0 (0) 0.15
  1. COVID-19, Coronavirus 2019; WBC, White blood cells; SGPT, Serum Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (Liver Function Tests); COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. aDifferences were assessed with independent t test for continuous variables, and Pearson’s Chi-square tests for categorical variables