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Table 2 Comparison of oxygen saturation, the need for oxygen, respiratory rate, and heart rate between the intervention and control groups at baseline (pre) and 4-day of follow-up (post)

From: Effects of short-term breathing exercises on respiratory recovery in patients with COVID-19: a quasi-experimental study

  Intervention group, (n = 79) Control group, (n = 58) Between group comparison (Intervention-control)
Measures Pre Post Within group
P value
Pre Post Within group
P value
Pre
P value
Post
P value
Oxygen saturation (SpO2)
mean (± SD)
87.9 (3.7) 96.6 (1.9)  < 0.001 88.0 (2.4) 90.7 (1.8)  < 0.001 0.75  < 0.001
Need of oxygen, (litre/min)
mean (± SD)
2.9 (2.8) 0.81 (2.6)  < 0.001 2.1 (2.6) 2.3 (2.9) 0.32 0.06  < 0.001
Respiratory rate
(breaths/min), mean (± SD)
26.8 (5.2) 20.5 (2.3)  < 0.001 25.4 (3.9) 22.3 (2.5)  < 0.001 0.08  < 0.001
Missing n = 10 n = 12   n = 7 n = 9    
Heart rate (beats/min)
mean (± SD)
93.3 (12.7) 81.2 (9.5)  < 0.001 95.6 (9.3) 89.2 (8.9)  < 0.001 0.26  < 0.001
Missing n = 1 n = 0   n = 1 n = 2