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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics

From: Associations between measures of physical fitness and cognitive performance in preschool children

Variables Girls
(n = 30)
Boys
(n = 31)
Total
(N = 61)
p (Cohen’s d)
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Between group differences
Age and anthropometry
Age (years) 4.5 ± 0.6 4.5 ± 0.7 4.5 ± 0.6 0.769 (0.06)
Age (months) 57.9 ± 7.5 59.6 ± 7.2 58.7 ± 7.3 0.413 (0.21)
Body height (cm) 109.5 ± 6.3 112.0 ± 4.9 110.8 ± 5.7 0.089 (0.45)
Body mass (kg) 19.3 ± 3.2 19.2 ± 2.2 19.2 ± 2.7 0.874 (0.04)
BMI (kg/m2) 16.0 ± 1.5 15.2 ± 1.1 15.6 ± 1.4 0.033 (0.57)
Physical fitness
Single-leg stance (max. 30 s) 13.6 ± 8.5 11.3 ± 8.0 12.5 ± 8.3 0.286 (0.29)
Standing long jump (cm) 77.8 ± 16.7 78.7 ± 22.4 78.3 ± 19.7 0.874 (0.04)
Hopping on right leg (max. 20) 14.3 ± 6.9 11.9 ± 7.7 13.2 ± 7.3 0.210 (0.33)
Hopping on left leg (max. 20) 12.7 ± 7.0 12.7 ± 7.5 12.7 ± 7.2 0.992 (0.01)
Composite score (coordination) 0.1 ± 0.9  − 0.1 ± 0.9  − 0.001 ± 0.9 0.454 (0.20)
Handgrip strength (kg) 7.1 ± 1.5 7.5 ± 1.9 7.3 ± 1.7 0.350 (0.25)
Composite score (physical fitness)* 0.02 ± 0.7  − 0.07 ± 0.9  − 0.02 ± 0.8 0.654 (0.11)
Cognitive performance
Sorting time KHV-VK (in min) 7.2 ± 1.6 6.9 ± 2.0 7.1 ± 1.9 0.455 (0.20)
Correct cards KHV-VK (number) 30.6 ± 8.2 31.1 ± 6.8 30.9 ± 7.4 0.823 (0.06)
Composite score (attention)  − 0.1 ± 0.8 0.1 ± 0.7 0.00 ± 0.76 0.526 (0.17)
  1. BMI body mass index
  2. *Mean of the z-scores of each of the four physical fitness tests