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Table 2 Outcome Scores (N = 54)a

From: Cross-sectional study on relationships between physical function and psychological readiness to return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

  Total (N = 54) ACL-RSI over 60 points (N = 31) ACL-RSI under 60 points (N = 23) P Effect size
Knee extension strength (60 deg/s)
Involved limb, Nm/kg 2.07 ± 0.39 [1.96–2.18] 2.13 ± 0.41 [1.98–2.28] 1.98 ± 0.36 [1.83–2.14] 0.164 0.25
Uninvolved limb, Nm/kg 2.49 ± 0.47 [2.37–2.62] 2.57 ± 0.46 [2.40–2.74] 2.39 ± 0.46 [2.19–2.59] 0.167 0.40
LSI, % 83.74 ± 10.84 [80.78–86.70] 83.53 ± 10.23 [79.77–87.28] 84.03 ± 11.83 [78.91–89.15] 0.867 0.05
Knee flexion strength (60 deg/s)
Involved limb, Nm/kg 1.08 ± 0.25 [1.01–1.14] 1.12 ± 0.21 [1.05–1.20] 1.01 ± 0.28 [0.89–1.13] 0.098 0.40
Uninvolved limb, Nm/kg 1.29 (0.42) [1.17–1.40] 1.26 (0.34) [1.23–1.45] 1.11 (0.30) [0.98–1.45] 0.026* −0.30
LSI, % 86.59 ± 16.55 [82.07–91.10] 85.62 ± 14.29 [80.38–90.86] 87.89 ± 19.45 [79.48–96.30] 0.638 0.14
HQ ratio (60 deg/s)
Involved limb, % 52.26 ± 9.15 [49.76–54.76] 53.35 ± 8.40 [50.27–56.43] 50.79 ± 10.08 [46.43–55.15] 0.315 0.28
Uninvolved limb, % 49.92 (9.50) [48.12–54.70] 52.34 (6.64) [48.92–56.38] 46.46 (10.27) [43.57–55.91] 0.026* −0.30
Knee extension strength (180 deg/s)
In involved limb, Nm/kg 1.45 ± 0.26 [1.37–1.52] 1.50 ± 0.24 [1.41–1.59] 1.38 ± 0.27 [1.26–1.49] 0.089 0.40
Uninvolved limb, Nm/kg 1.78 ± 0.31 [1.69–1.86] 1.82 ± 0.29 [1.71–1.92] 1.72 ± 0.33 [1.57–1.87] 0.252 0.33
LSI, % 80.42 (9.66) [79.43–83.94] 80.69 (10.53) [79.55–85.83] 78.66 (10.63) [76.97–83.71] 0.447 −0.10
Knee flexion strength (180 deg/s)
Involved limb, Nm/kg 0.84 ± 0.22 [0.78–0.90] 0.90 ± 0.18 [0.83–0.96] 0.77 ± 0.24 [0.67–0.88] 0.040* 0.50
Uninvolved limb, Nm/kg 0.97 ± 0.21 [0.91–1.02] 1.00 ± 0.19 [0.94–1.07] 0.91 ± 0.22 [0.82–1.01] 0.116 0.50
LSI, % 87.32 ± 13.48 [83.64–91.00] 89.44 ± 9.43 [85.98–92.90] 84.46 ± 17.37 [76.94–91.97] 0.222 0.37
HQ ratio (180 deg/s)
Involved limb, % 58.24 ± 10.37 [55.41–61.07] 60.16 ± 9.03 [56.85–63.47] 55.66 ± 11.65 [50.62–60.69] 0.116 0.44
Uninvolved limb, % 54.50 ± 7.62 [52.42–56.58] 55.57 ± 7.98 [52.65–58.50] 53.04 ± 7.02 [50.01–56.08] 0.232 0.34
Leg anterior reach distance
Involved limb, % lower limb length 69.8 ± 6.5 [68.0–71.6] 70.3 ± 6.7 [67.8–72.8] 69.1 ± 6.3 [66.4–71.9] 0.524 0.18
Uninvolved limb, % lower limb length 72.0 ± 6.4 [70.2–73.8] 71.5 ± 7.1 [68.9–74.1] 72.7 ± 5.5 [70.4–75.1] 0.488 0.19
LSI, % 97.0 ± 4.7 [95.7–98.3] 98.5 ± 3.8 [97.1–99.8] 95.1 ± 5.3 [92.8–97.4] 0.008* 0.76
Anterior SLH distance
Involved limb, % height 62.3 ± 15.1 [58.2–66.4] 65.4 ± 14.7 [60.1–70.8] 58.1 ± 14.9 [51.7–64.5] 0.077 0.49
Uninvolved limb, % height 71.5 ± 14.5 [67.7–75.7] 73.0 ± 16.2 [67.1–79.0] 70.0 ± 12.0 [64.7–75.2] 0.449 0.21
LSI, % 89.6 (16.5) [83.6–90.8] 90.4 (13.1) [86.7–93.9] 86.5 (25.5) [76.1–89.9] 0.139 −0.20
Lateral SLH distance
Involved limb, % height 47.6 ± 12.6 [44.1–51.0] 50.6 ± 12.1 [46.2–55.1] 43.4 ± 12.4 [38.1–48.8] 0.036* 0.59
Uninvolved limb, % height 56.1 ± 12.0 [52.8–59.3] 57.6 ± 13.1 [52.8–62.4] 54.0 ± 10.3 [49.5–58.4] 0.279 0.30
LSI, % 84.5 ± 13.3 [80.9–88.1] 88.3 ± 11.4 [84.1–92.5] 79.3 ± 14.2 [73.2–85.5] 0.013* 0.71
Medial SLH distance
Involved limb, % height 52.1 ± 13.7 [48.4–55.9] 56.4 ± 13.8 [51.3–61.4] 46.4 ± 11.7 [41.4–51.5] 0.007* 0.77
Uninvolved limb, % height 58.4 ± 12.4 [55.0–61.8] 60.6 ± 13.6 [55.6–65.6] 55.6 ± 10.2 [51.2–60.0] 0.146 0.41
LSI, % 89.5 (16.1) [85.1–92.9] 93.2 (13.5) [89.0–97.7] 82.9 (19.1) [76.5–89.8] 0.018* −0.32
Subjective running ability, % 80.0 (30.0) [79.5–87.5] 95.0 (20.0) [85.3–93.9] 80 (10.0) [69.1–81.4] 0.001* −0.47
Tampa scale for kinesiophobia 35.6 ± 6.5 [33.9–37.4] 33.5 ± 6.2 [31.2–35.7] 38.5 ± 5.9 [36.0–41.1] 0.004* 0.82
  1. aData are reported as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range) [95% confidence interval]. LSI Limb symmetry index; SLH Single-leg hop
  2. *Significance at P < 0.05