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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of sociodemographic information of Baduanjin exercise group and controls; n = 387

From: The effect of the Baduanjin exercise on COVID-19-related anxiety, psychological well-being and lower back pain of college students during the pandemic

Variable BEG (n = 195) CG (n = 192) X2 p
Age (years) 24 ± 4 23 ± 3 − 0.32 0.964
Gender (M/F) Men 106 (54.3%) 91 (47.3%)   0.716
Female 89 (45.7%) 101 (52.7%)   
Education College/Undergraduate 114 (58.4%) 109 (56.7%) 1.493 0.439
Postgraduate Student 49 (25.25%) 61(31.9%)   
Doctoral candidate 20(10.4%) 22(11.4%)   
Marital status Married 19 (9.7%) 13 (6.7%) 0.719 0.35
Other 176 (90.3%) 179 (93.3%)   
Smoking
status
Never
Yes
Ever smoking
104 (53.3%)
65 (33.3%)
26 (13.4%)
99 (51.56%)
70 (36.4%)
23 (12.04%)
0.819 0.631
Drinking status Never
Yes
Ever drinking
106 (54.35%)
77 (39.4%)
12 (6.25%)
109 (56.7%)
69 (35.9%)
14 (7.4%)
0.496 0.774
Sedentary time (hour)  ≤ 5
5–9
10 ≥ 
40 (20.5%)
58 (29.8%)
97 (49.7%)
37 (19.2%)
63 (32.9%)
92 (47.9%)
1.33 0.628
Frequency of participation in exercise (times / week)  ≤ 3
3–5
5 ≥ 
83 (42.5%)
70 (35.8%)
42 (21.7%)
78 (40.6%)
67 (34.8%)
47 (24.6%)
− 0.25 0.356
  1. In the case of variables with a quantitative measurement scale, the data was presented using mean ± standard deviation