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Table 3 Differences between U13 and U15 handball players in upper body performance variables

From: Physical fitness and throwing speed in U13 versus U15 male handball players

  U13 U15 AGE Effect size
OMB (m) 5.9 ± 1.1 8.5 ± 1.4 13.732 (< 0.001)* 2.13 (1.65; 2.62)
HB7 (km·h−1) 66.5 ± 7.5 77.0 ± 5.6 1.688 (0.196)* 1.50 (1.05; 1.94)
HB9 (km·h−1) 66.3 ± 7.0 76.8 ± 4.6 4.034 (0.047)* 1.53 (1.09; 1.98)
Shoulder strength
 Dominant side
  IR (N) 120.3 ± 31.3 137.2 ± 26.1 11.009 (0.001)* 0.56 (0.15; 0.97)
  Norm-IR (N/kg) 2.24 ± 0.55 2.19 ± 0.42 0.226 (0.635) − 0.10 (− 0.50; 0.31)
  ER (N) 106.4 ± 28.3 134.2 ± 43.2 3.969 (0.049)* 0.83 (0.42; 1.25)
  Norm-ER (N/kg) 1.97 ± 0.47 2.10 ± 0.50 1.596 (0.209) 0.26 (− 0.15; 0.66)
  ER/IR ratio 0.91 ± 0.24 0.97 ± 0.21 1.371 (0.244) 0.24 (− 0.16; 0.64)
 Non-dominant side
  IR (N) 110.5 ± 28.6 130.6 ± 34.7 12.347 (0.001)* 0.66 (0.25; 1.07)
  Norm-IR (N/kg) 2.06 ± 0.47 2.07 ± 0.45 0.010 (0.919) 0.02 (− 0.38; 0.42)
  ER (N) 98.7 ± 25.1 126.2 ± 41.2 6.427 (0.013)* 0.90 (0.48; 1.32)
  Norm-ER (N/kg) 1.82 ± 0.38 1.97 ± 0.47 0.158 (0.692)* 0.35 (− 0.05; 0.76)
  ER/IR ratio 0.91 ± 0.17 0.96 ± 0.15 2.396 (0.124) 0.32 (− 0.09; 0.72)
Bilateral deficit
 IR deficit (%) 7.4 ± 11.7 5.9 ± 14.1 0.334 (0.565) − 0.12 (− 0.52; 0.28)
 ER deficit (%) 6.5 ± 13.4 5.9 ± 10.7 0.053 (0.818) − 0.05 (− 0.45; 0.35)
Shoulder ROM
 Dominant side
  IR (°) 65.7 ± 11.5 57.0 ± 10.7 13.951 (< 0.001) − 0.76 (− 1.17; − 0.35)
  ER (°) 139.6 ± 19.4 159.0 ± 16.0 26.062 (< 0.001) 1.04 (0.62; 1.46)
 Non-dominant side
  IR (°) 71.7 ± 11.5 67.3 ± 11.0 0.013 (0.910) − 0.39 (− 0.79; 0.02)
  ER (°) 125.4 ± 17.9 142.3 ± 14.2 23.499 (< 0.001) 0.99 (− 0.57; 1.41)
 Bilateral deficit
  IR deficit (°) − 6.0 ± 10.7 − 10.2 ± 9.8 3.789 (0.054) − 0.40 (− 0.80; 0.01)
  1. One-way independent measures ANOVA using Age as between subject factor. *One-way independent measures ANCOVAs with Age as between subject factor and MO as covariate. Main effects of age are presented as F values (p). Effect sizes were calculated as Hedge’s g. Positive effect sizes denote that U15 showed better performances than U13. Effect sizes were presented as means (95% confidence intervals)
  2. MBO: overhead medicine ball throw; HB7: 7-m handball throw; HB9: 9-m handball throw; IR: internal rotation; ER: external rotation; Norm-IR: normalized internal rotation strength; Norm-ER: normalized external rotation strength; ROM: range of motion