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  1. To propose cut-off points for older adults’ weakness for upper and lower limbs muscle strength normalized by body size with the ratio standard/muscle quality and allometric scaling.

    Authors: Pedro Pugliesi Abdalla, Lucimere Bohn, Leonardo Santos Lopes da Silva, André Pereira dos Santos, Marcio Fernando Tasinafo Junior, Ana Claudia Rossini Venturini, Anderson dos Santos Carvalho, David Martinez Gomez, Jorge Mota and Dalmo Roberto Lopes Machado
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:161
  2. To handle the competition demands, sparring drills are used for specific technical–tactical training as well as physical–physiological conditioning in combat sports. While the effects of different area sizes a...

    Authors: Ibrahim Ouergui, Slaheddine Delleli, Anissa Bouassida, Ezdine Bouhlel, Helmi Chaabene, Luca Paolo Ardigò and Emerson Franchini
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:158
  3. The aim of this study was to analyse the physical demands and technical-tactical actions for each playing position according to game location and final outcome in professional soccer players.

    Authors: Adrián Díez, Demetrio Lozano, Jose Luis Arjol-Serrano, Elena Mainer-Pardos, Daniel Castillo, Marcelino Torrontegui-Duarte, Hadi Nobari, Diego Jaén-Carrillo and Miguel Lampre
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:157
  4. The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of a submaximal cycling test to detect longitudinal changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and examine the conformity between changes in measured and...

    Authors: Frida Björkman, Örjan Ekblom, Elin Ekblom-Bak and Tony Bohman
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:156
  5. The coach attitude impacts the whole mind and body system of a child athlete from emotional and motivational aspects to motor skills like motor coordination. It translates into the ability to control and stabi...

    Authors: D. Wilczyńska, A. Łysak-Radomska, M. Podczarska-Głowacka, K. Krasowska, E. Perzanowska, A. Walentukiewicz, M. Lipowski and W. Skrobot
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:155
  6. As combat sports are classified by body mass, many athletes engage in rapid weight loss (RWL) prior to competition so they can gain an advantage over lighter opponents. Following the weigh-in, athletes engage ...

    Authors: Nemanja Lakicevic, Diba Mani, Antonio Paoli, Roberto Roklicer, Antonino Bianco and Patrik Drid
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:154
  7. Patient-centered care and evidence-based practice (EBP) are core competencies for health care professionals. The importance of EBP has led to an increase in research involving clinical outcomes; current recomm...

    Authors: Madeline P. Casanova, Megan C. Nelson, Michael A. Pickering, Lindsay W. Larkins, Karen M. Appleby, Emma J. Grindley and Russell T. Baker
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:153
  8. Dynamic knee valgus (DKV) is a common lower extremity movement disorder among females. This study aimed to investigate kinematic couplings between lower extremity joints in female junior athletes with DKV duri...

    Authors: Mahdis Dadfar, Rahman Sheikhhoseini, Mohadeseh Jafarian and Alireza Esmaeili
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:152
  9. Standard endurance training used from the second stage of cardiac rehabilitation has many common features with indoor cycling training which is used in fitness clubs. In the study, an attempt was made to evalu...

    Authors: Dagmara Gloc, Zbigniew Nowak, Agata Nowak-Lis, Tomasz Gabryś, Urszula Szmatlan-Gabrys, Peter Valach and Anna Pilis
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:151
  10. The aim of this study is to determine and to compare the effect of sex differences in percentage of body fat on the strength and power performances of the legs and arms during short maximal exercise.

    Authors: Ghassen Ben Mansour, Asma Kacem, Mohamed Ishak, Laurent Grélot and Foued Ftaiti
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:150
  11. Anterior cruciate ligament injury arises when the knee anterior ligament fibers are stretched, partially torn, or completely torn. Operated patients either end up re-injuring their reconstructed anterior cruci...

    Authors: Balázs Sonkodi, Endre Varga, László Hangody, Gyula Poór and István Berkes
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:149
  12. Patients with lower extremity problems (LEP) commonly experience functional loss, pain, decreased range of motion, inadequacy in daily living activities, and structural change in radiographic evaluations. Howe...

    Authors: Youngha Kim, Danbee Kang, Eunjee Kang, Jihyun Lim, Sooyeon Kim, Heesu Nam, Sungkeun Shim, Mangyeong Lee, Young-Wan Moon, Seung-Jae Lim, Ki-Sun Sung and Juhee Cho
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:148
  13. Among athletes, bodybuilders are more predisposed to the use of dietary supplements (DS) and hormones (H) to increase in adaptations to physical training and performance. The purpose of the study was to identi...

    Authors: Paolo Montuori, Ilaria Loperto, Carmine Paolo, Davide Castrianni, Raffaele Nubi, Elvira De Rosa, Raffaele Palladino and Maria Triassi
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:147
  14. It is known that amenorrhea is highly prevalent among female athletes. However, a large percentage of them do not seek help if this complaint occurs. We performed this study to gain more insight into the reaso...

    Authors: Saskia J. Verhoef, Merel C. Wielink, Edwin A. Achterberg, Marlies Y. Bongers and Simone M. T. A. Goossens
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:146
  15. This study aims to determine and compare the effects of exercise modalities with different intensities on the secretion of key inflammation and hypoxia markers in amateur athletes.

    Authors: Fatih Baygutalp, Yusuf Buzdağlı, Murat Ozan, Mitat Koz, Nurcan Kılıç Baygutalp and Gökhan Atasever
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:145
  16. The study aimed to assess whether intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) and intermittent negative pressure (INP) would attenuate the muscle damaging effects of eccentric exercise.

    Authors: Szczepan Wiecha, Martyna Jarocka, Paweł Wiśniowski, Maciej Cieśliński, Szymon Price, Bartłomiej Makaruk, Jadwiga Kotowska, Dorota Drabarek, Igor Cieśliński and Tomasz Sacewicz
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:144
  17. Reliable and valid instruments are needed to estimate physical activity levels. The purposes of this study were to estimate the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Questionnaire (MTPAQ) in a subs...

    Authors: C. Medina, A. Monge, M. Romero, R. López-Ridaura, S. Barquera, I. Romieu, E. Denova-Gutiérrez and M. Lajous
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:143
  18. Adequate neuromuscular control of the knee could be one element to prevent secondary injuries after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. To assess neuromuscular control in terms of time, amplitude and a...

    Authors: Angela Blasimann, Irene Koenig, Isabel Baert, Heiner Baur and Dirk Vissers
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:142
  19. Handball is characterised by repetitive passing and shooting actions mainly performed with the throwing arm. This can lead to side differences (inter-limb asymmetry) in upper quarter mobility/stability between...

    Authors: Julian Bauer, Stefan Panzer and Thomas Muehlbauer
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:141
  20. Intermuscular synchronization constitutes one of the key aspects of effective sport performance and activities of daily living. The aim of the study was to assess the synchronization of trunk stabilizer muscle...

    Authors: Monika Błaszczyszyn, Zbigniew Borysiuk, Katarzyna Piechota, Krzysztof Kręcisz and Dariusz Zmarzły
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:140
  21. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effectiveness of early cardiac rehabilitation on patients with heart failure following acute myocardial infarction.

    Authors: He Cai, Pengyu Cao, Wenqian Zhou, Wanqing Sun, Xinying Zhang, Rongyu Li, Wangshu Shao, Lin Wang, Lin Zou and Yang Zheng
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:139
  22. Recreational running has greatly increased over the last decade, and different research has tried to understand the motivation that leads these amateur athletes to run. However, most research has focused on ad...

    Authors: Patxi León-Guereño, Héctor Galindo-Domínguez, Eneko Balerdi-Eizmendi, Mateusz Rozmiarek and Ewa Malchrowicz-Mośko
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:138
  23. In current sports science, the important role of sleep quality for health and peak performance is well acknowledged. More precisely, it is evident that the negative combination of stressful factors, low resour...

    Authors: Kristina Klier, Selina Dörr and Annette Schmidt
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:137
  24. During Australian football (AF) matches, players are subjected to high running loads, which are intermittent in nature. There is a growing body of research that highlights factors which can both positively and...

    Authors: Christopher Wing, Nicolas H. Hart, Fadi Ma’ayah and Kazunori Nosaka
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:136
  25. There is insufficient physical activity among women. Yet the implementation of effective, multilevel, and evidence-based interventions may address this. Since the lifestyle of individuals is formed in many dif...

    Authors: Leila Amiri-Farahani, Soroor Parvizy, Eesa Mohammadi, Mohsen Asadi-Lari, Ziba Taghizadeh and Sally Pezaro
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:135
  26. Increased engagement of adolescents in martial arts exposes them to a relatively high risk of experiencing orofacial injuries. We evaluated self-reported experience of orofacial injuries, preventive practice, ...

    Authors: Ali Esmaeilpoor, Simin Z. Mohebbi, Navid Moghadam, Mina Ahmadian, Samaneh Razeghi and Mohammad R. Khami
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:134
  27. In an effort to increase people’s adherence to active lifestyles, contemporary physical activity (PA) guidelines now include low-dose PA.

    Authors: Julien Tripette, Yuko Gando, Haruka Murakami, Ryoko Kawakami, Kumpei Tanisawa, Harumi Ohno, Kana Konishi, Michiya Tanimoto, Noriko Tanaka, Hiroshi Kawano, Kenta Yamamoto, Akie Morishita, Motoyuki Iemitsu, Kiyoshi Sanada, Nobuyuki Miyatake and Motohiko Miyachi
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:133
  28. Many people with neurological conditions experience challenges with movement. Although rehabilitation is often provided acutely and sub-acutely following the onset of a condition, motor deficits commonly persi...

    Authors: Cameron S. Mang and Sue Peters
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:132
  29. Physical fitness is an essential marker of health. The literature regarding the question of whether individuals with asthma have reduced physical fitness compared to their non-asthmatic peers is inconsistent a...

    Authors: Anke Hanssen-Doose, Robert Jaeschke, Claudia Niessner, Doris Oriwol and Annette Worth
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:131
  30. Symmetry is a sign of physiological and healthy movements, as pathologies are often described by increased asymmetries. Nevertheless, based on precisely measured data, even healthy individuals will show small ...

    Authors: Hannah Lena Siebers, Waleed Alrawashdeh, Marcel Betsch, Filippo Migliorini, Frank Hildebrand and Jörg Eschweiler
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:130
  31. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of bradycardia induced by pre-exercise acupuncture on heart rate responses during short-duration exercise.

    Authors: Hidehiro Nakahara, Shin-ya Ueda, Eriko Kawai, Rui Higashiura and Tadayoshi Miyamoto
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:129
  32. Peer-based exercise interventions that cultivate new opportunities for support with a fellow cancer survivor may result in increased exercise volume. It is not clear whether adding qualified exercise professio...

    Authors: Jenna Smith-Turchyn, Michelle E. McCowan, Erin O’Loughlin, Angela J. Fong, Meghan H. McDonough, Daniel Santa Mina, Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Linda Trinh, Jennifer M. Jones, Jackie L. Bender, S. Nicole Culos-Reed, Jennifer R. Tomasone, Madison F. Vani and Catherine M. Sabiston
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:128
  33. Superior shoulder motion with rotator cuff activation are essential for the performance of the throwing athletes. The present study compared the novel beginning movement load training (BMLT) and popular throwe...

    Authors: Wen-Yi Chou, Jih-Yang Ko, Shu-Fang Chen, Chia-Feng Wu, Kuan-Ting Wu and Shun-Wun Jhan
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:127
  34. The interpretation of the load variations across a period seems important to control the weekly progression or variation of the load, or to identify within- micro and mesocycle variations. Thus, the aim of thi...

    Authors: Rafael Oliveira, Alexandre Martins, Hadi Nobari, Matilde Nalha, Bruno Mendes, Filipe Manuel Clemente and João Paulo Brito
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:126
  35. Digit ratio (2D:4D) characterized by the length of the second digit (2D) divided by the length of the fourth digit (4D), is a powerful marker of athletic performance. Some studies showed a negative correlation...

    Authors: Hadi Nobari, Ana Ruivo Alves, Filipe Manuel Clemente and Jorge Pérez-Gómez
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:125
  36. Personal activity intelligence (PAI) is a single physical activity metric based upon heart rate responses to physical activity. Maintaining 100 PAI/week is associated with a 25% risk reduction in cardiovascula...

    Authors: Amanda L. Hannan, Wayne Hing, Jeff S. Coombes, Suzanne Gough, Mike Climstein, Geoff Adsett, Rohan Jayasinghe and James Furness
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:124
  37. The “parkrun: running or volunteering for everyone” (PROVE) project was an example of a community-based physical activity and volunteering initiative for people living with long-term health conditions in England....

    Authors: Helen Quirk and Steve Haake
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:123
  38. The therapeutic alliance (TA) is the bond between a patient and a physiotherapist during collaboration on recovery or training. Previous studies focused on the TA between physiotherapists and patients of the g...

    Authors: W. M. Charmant, P. J. van der Wees, J. B. Staal, R. van Cingel, J. M. Sieben and R. A. de Bie
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:122
  39. Injury-related fear contributed to disability in chronic ankle instability (CAI), while there still lacked exploration on the appraisal processes of the injury-related stimuli. This study aimed to compare the ...

    Authors: Xiao’ao Xue, Shengkun Li, Hongyun Li, Qianru Li and Yinghui Hua
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:121
  40. To improve propulsion during running, athletes often wear spike shoes designed for training and/or competition. Running with spike shoes may cause pain and/or injuries. To address this problem, a modified spik...

    Authors: Amir Ali Jafarnezhadgero, Ehsan Fakhri and Urs Granacher
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:120
  41. Respiratory symptoms are common in competitive swimmers. However, among these and in swimmers at other activity levels the swimming distance, the total spent time in swimming halls and their medical background...

    Authors: Marja Päivinen, Kari Keskinen, Tuula Putus, Urho M. Kujala, Pentti Kalliokoski and Heikki O. Tikkanen
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:119
  42. Hydrofoil technology has changed sailing, significantly increasing its speed and resulting in spectacularity and mass media interest. Although high speed can expose participants to a risk of high-energy trauma...

    Authors: Francesco Feletti, Eric Brymer, Matteo Bonato and Andrea Aliverti
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:118
  43. Anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS) contain testosterone-like androgens and are used as supplements to improve performance, therapeutic measures, appearance, and muscular development.

    Authors: Ameen Mosleh Almohammadi, Anas Mohammed Edriss and Turki Talal Enani
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:117
  44. Monitoring technology is increasingly accessible to recreational runners. Our aim was to examine patterns of technology use in recreational runners, and its potential association with injury.

    Authors: Richard S. Mayne, Chris M. Bleakley and Mark Matthews
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:116
  45. Lightweight rowers commonly utilize weight loss techniques over 24-h before competition to achieve the qualifying weight for racing. The objective was to investigate, using a quasi-experimental design, whether...

    Authors: Dayton J. Kelly, Sarah L. West, Nathan O’Keeffe and Liana E. Brown
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:115
  46. Physical inactivity is one of the primary factors that leads to obesity and overweight. What is more, it is becoming an increasingly common problem among the population of those who work. The causes of obesity...

    Authors: Katarzyna Kwiecień-Jaguś, Wioletta Mędrzycka-Dąbrowska, Monika Kopeć, Renata Piotrkowska, Katarzyna Czyż-Szypenbejl, Rita Hansdorfer-Korzon, Magdalena Lemska and Piotr Jarzynkowski
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:114
  47. Ankle sprains are the most commonly reported injury in netball. Approximately four in five netball athletes will sustain an ankle sprain, up to half will go on to sustain recurrent ankle sprains, and nine in t...

    Authors: Patrick L. Rowe, Adam L. Bryant and Kade L. Paterson
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:113
  48. Obesity is considered an epidemic problem with an increasing number of individuals affected. The physical and psychological complaints associated with obesity point to the importance of implementing effective ...

    Authors: Julian Fritsch, Katharina Feil, Susanne Weyland, Detlef Schmidt and Darko Jekauc
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:112
  49. In Taekwondo competitions, the rule is that points are scored when the impact of the kick reaches a predetermined threshold of strength. This study aimed to explore the adequacy of the protector and scoring sy...

    Authors: Chang-Hwan Choi, Hyeri Oh and Minsoo Jeon
    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:110

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