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Table 2 Summary of grading scales to classify ankle sprain injury.

From: Understanding acute ankle ligamentous sprain injury in sports

Grading scale Description Grading Static/dynamic
American Medical Association Standard Nomenclature System [114] Considers the severity of the injury to the ligaments. - Static
Davis and Trevino [118] Grading according to pathology, ie the damage to the ligamentous structure and also the instability presented clinincally. Fours grades with some sub-grading. Static
Mann [113] Grading according to swelling, sensitivity to pressure, drawer test, tilt test, ability of jumping, running, cutting. Each of the three item is rated with 0–3 points (0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe), a total score for final grading: Grade I: 1–3 points, Grade II: 4–6 points, Grade III 7–9 points. Static
Jaikkomen, Kannus and Jarvinen [119] Three questions on subjective assessment, two clinical measurements on the ankle, two muscle strength tests, one ankle functional stability test and one balancing test. Four classes grading system. Score for fully normal ankle was 100. the total score of 85 to 100 was graded as excellent, 70–80 as good, 55–65 as fair and > = 50 as poor. Dynamic
De Bie el. Al. [120] Evaluates the pain, instability, weight bearing, swelling and gait pattern and adds up to a score of 100. Cutoff point for being healed was defined as obtaining more than 75 points on a function score and scoring less than two out of 12 points on the palpation or stress test. To score as being able to walk, minimal 35 points need to be obtained. Dynamic
Clanton [114] Relates to the treatment protocols requested. Stable or unstable ankle (subgrade of non-athletics, older patients and young active athletes). Dynamic