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  1. Standard endurance training used from the second stage of cardiac rehabilitation has many common features with indoor cycling training which is used in fitness clubs. In the study, an attempt was made to evalu...

    Authors: Dagmara Gloc, Zbigniew Nowak, Agata Nowak-Lis, Tomasz Gabryś, Urszula Szmatlan-Gabrys, Peter Valach and Anna Pilis

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:151

    Content type: Research

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  2. The aim of this study is to determine and to compare the effect of sex differences in percentage of body fat on the strength and power performances of the legs and arms during short maximal exercise.

    Authors: Ghassen Ben Mansour, Asma Kacem, Mohamed Ishak, Laurent Grélot and Foued Ftaiti

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:150

    Content type: Research

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  3. Anterior cruciate ligament injury arises when the knee anterior ligament fibers are stretched, partially torn, or completely torn. Operated patients either end up re-injuring their reconstructed anterior cruci...

    Authors: Balázs Sonkodi, Endre Varga, László Hangody, Gyula Poór and István Berkes

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:149

    Content type: Commentary

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  4. Patients with lower extremity problems (LEP) commonly experience functional loss, pain, decreased range of motion, inadequacy in daily living activities, and structural change in radiographic evaluations. Howe...

    Authors: Youngha Kim, Danbee Kang, Eunjee Kang, Jihyun Lim, Sooyeon Kim, Heesu Nam, Sungkeun Shim, Mangyeong Lee, Young-Wan Moon, Seung-Jae Lim, Ki-Sun Sung and Juhee Cho

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:148

    Content type: Research

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  5. Among athletes, bodybuilders are more predisposed to the use of dietary supplements (DS) and hormones (H) to increase in adaptations to physical training and performance. The purpose of the study was to identi...

    Authors: Paolo Montuori, Ilaria Loperto, Carmine Paolo, Davide Castrianni, Raffaele Nubi, Elvira De Rosa, Raffaele Palladino and Maria Triassi

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:147

    Content type: Research

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  6. It is known that amenorrhea is highly prevalent among female athletes. However, a large percentage of them do not seek help if this complaint occurs. We performed this study to gain more insight into the reaso...

    Authors: Saskia J. Verhoef, Merel C. Wielink, Edwin A. Achterberg, Marlies Y. Bongers and Simone M. T. A. Goossens

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:146

    Content type: Research article

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  7. This study aims to determine and compare the effects of exercise modalities with different intensities on the secretion of key inflammation and hypoxia markers in amateur athletes.

    Authors: Fatih Baygutalp, Yusuf Buzdağlı, Murat Ozan, Mitat Koz, Nurcan Kılıç Baygutalp and Gökhan Atasever

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:145

    Content type: Research

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  8. The study aimed to assess whether intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) and intermittent negative pressure (INP) would attenuate the muscle damaging effects of eccentric exercise.

    Authors: Szczepan Wiecha, Martyna Jarocka, Paweł Wiśniowski, Maciej Cieśliński, Szymon Price, Bartłomiej Makaruk, Jadwiga Kotowska, Dorota Drabarek, Igor Cieśliński and Tomasz Sacewicz

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:144

    Content type: Research

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  9. Reliable and valid instruments are needed to estimate physical activity levels. The purposes of this study were to estimate the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Questionnaire (MTPAQ) in a subs...

    Authors: C. Medina, A. Monge, M. Romero, R. López-Ridaura, S. Barquera, I. Romieu, E. Denova-Gutiérrez and M. Lajous

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:143

    Content type: Research

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  10. Adequate neuromuscular control of the knee could be one element to prevent secondary injuries after an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. To assess neuromuscular control in terms of time, amplitude and a...

    Authors: Angela Blasimann, Irene Koenig, Isabel Baert, Heiner Baur and Dirk Vissers

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:142

    Content type: Research

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  11. Handball is characterised by repetitive passing and shooting actions mainly performed with the throwing arm. This can lead to side differences (inter-limb asymmetry) in upper quarter mobility/stability between...

    Authors: Julian Bauer, Stefan Panzer and Thomas Muehlbauer

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:141

    Content type: Research

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  12. Intermuscular synchronization constitutes one of the key aspects of effective sport performance and activities of daily living. The aim of the study was to assess the synchronization of trunk stabilizer muscle...

    Authors: Monika Błaszczyszyn, Zbigniew Borysiuk, Katarzyna Piechota, Krzysztof Kręcisz and Dariusz Zmarzły

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:140

    Content type: Research

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  13. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effectiveness of early cardiac rehabilitation on patients with heart failure following acute myocardial infarction.

    Authors: He Cai, Pengyu Cao, Wenqian Zhou, Wanqing Sun, Xinying Zhang, Rongyu Li, Wangshu Shao, Lin Wang, Lin Zou and Yang Zheng

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:139

    Content type: Research

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  14. Recreational running has greatly increased over the last decade, and different research has tried to understand the motivation that leads these amateur athletes to run. However, most research has focused on ad...

    Authors: Patxi León-Guereño, Héctor Galindo-Domínguez, Eneko Balerdi-Eizmendi, Mateusz Rozmiarek and Ewa Malchrowicz-Mośko

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:138

    Content type: Research article

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  15. In current sports science, the important role of sleep quality for health and peak performance is well acknowledged. More precisely, it is evident that the negative combination of stressful factors, low resour...

    Authors: Kristina Klier, Selina Dörr and Annette Schmidt

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:137

    Content type: Research

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  16. During Australian football (AF) matches, players are subjected to high running loads, which are intermittent in nature. There is a growing body of research that highlights factors which can both positively and...

    Authors: Christopher Wing, Nicolas H. Hart, Fadi Ma’ayah and Kazunori Nosaka

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:136

    Content type: Review

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  17. There is insufficient physical activity among women. Yet the implementation of effective, multilevel, and evidence-based interventions may address this. Since the lifestyle of individuals is formed in many dif...

    Authors: Leila Amiri-Farahani, Soroor Parvizy, Eesa Mohammadi, Mohsen Asadi-Lari, Ziba Taghizadeh and Sally Pezaro

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:135

    Content type: Research

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  18. Increased engagement of adolescents in martial arts exposes them to a relatively high risk of experiencing orofacial injuries. We evaluated self-reported experience of orofacial injuries, preventive practice, ...

    Authors: Ali Esmaeilpoor, Simin Z. Mohebbi, Navid Moghadam, Mina Ahmadian, Samaneh Razeghi and Mohammad R. Khami

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:134

    Content type: Research

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  19. In an effort to increase people’s adherence to active lifestyles, contemporary physical activity (PA) guidelines now include low-dose PA.

    Authors: Julien Tripette, Yuko Gando, Haruka Murakami, Ryoko Kawakami, Kumpei Tanisawa, Harumi Ohno, Kana Konishi, Michiya Tanimoto, Noriko Tanaka, Hiroshi Kawano, Kenta Yamamoto, Akie Morishita, Motoyuki Iemitsu, Kiyoshi Sanada, Nobuyuki Miyatake and Motohiko Miyachi

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:133

    Content type: Research

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  20. Many people with neurological conditions experience challenges with movement. Although rehabilitation is often provided acutely and sub-acutely following the onset of a condition, motor deficits commonly persi...

    Authors: Cameron S. Mang and Sue Peters

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:132

    Content type: Review

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  21. Physical fitness is an essential marker of health. The literature regarding the question of whether individuals with asthma have reduced physical fitness compared to their non-asthmatic peers is inconsistent a...

    Authors: Anke Hanssen-Doose, Robert Jaeschke, Claudia Niessner, Doris Oriwol and Annette Worth

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:131

    Content type: Research

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  22. Symmetry is a sign of physiological and healthy movements, as pathologies are often described by increased asymmetries. Nevertheless, based on precisely measured data, even healthy individuals will show small ...

    Authors: Hannah Lena Siebers, Waleed Alrawashdeh, Marcel Betsch, Filippo Migliorini, Frank Hildebrand and Jörg Eschweiler

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:130

    Content type: Research

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  23. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of bradycardia induced by pre-exercise acupuncture on heart rate responses during short-duration exercise.

    Authors: Hidehiro Nakahara, Shin-ya Ueda, Eriko Kawai, Rui Higashiura and Tadayoshi Miyamoto

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:129

    Content type: Research

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  24. Peer-based exercise interventions that cultivate new opportunities for support with a fellow cancer survivor may result in increased exercise volume. It is not clear whether adding qualified exercise professio...

    Authors: Jenna Smith-Turchyn, Michelle E. McCowan, Erin O’Loughlin, Angela J. Fong, Meghan H. McDonough, Daniel Santa Mina, Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Linda Trinh, Jennifer M. Jones, Jackie L. Bender, S. Nicole Culos-Reed, Jennifer R. Tomasone, Madison F. Vani and Catherine M. Sabiston

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:128

    Content type: Study protocol

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  25. Superior shoulder motion with rotator cuff activation are essential for the performance of the throwing athletes. The present study compared the novel beginning movement load training (BMLT) and popular throwe...

    Authors: Wen-Yi Chou, Jih-Yang Ko, Shu-Fang Chen, Chia-Feng Wu, Kuan-Ting Wu and Shun-Wun Jhan

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:127

    Content type: Research

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  26. The interpretation of the load variations across a period seems important to control the weekly progression or variation of the load, or to identify within- micro and mesocycle variations. Thus, the aim of thi...

    Authors: Rafael Oliveira, Alexandre Martins, Hadi Nobari, Matilde Nalha, Bruno Mendes, Filipe Manuel Clemente and João Paulo Brito

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:126

    Content type: Research

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  27. Digit ratio (2D:4D) characterized by the length of the second digit (2D) divided by the length of the fourth digit (4D), is a powerful marker of athletic performance. Some studies showed a negative correlation...

    Authors: Hadi Nobari, Ana Ruivo Alves, Filipe Manuel Clemente and Jorge Pérez-Gómez

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:125

    Content type: Research

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  28. Personal activity intelligence (PAI) is a single physical activity metric based upon heart rate responses to physical activity. Maintaining 100 PAI/week is associated with a 25% risk reduction in cardiovascula...

    Authors: Amanda L. Hannan, Wayne Hing, Jeff S. Coombes, Suzanne Gough, Mike Climstein, Geoff Adsett, Rohan Jayasinghe and James Furness

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:124

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The “parkrun: running or volunteering for everyone” (PROVE) project was an example of a community-based physical activity and volunteering initiative for people living with long-term health conditions in England....

    Authors: Helen Quirk and Steve Haake

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:123

    Content type: Research

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  30. The therapeutic alliance (TA) is the bond between a patient and a physiotherapist during collaboration on recovery or training. Previous studies focused on the TA between physiotherapists and patients of the g...

    Authors: W. M. Charmant, P. J. van der Wees, J. B. Staal, R. van Cingel, J. M. Sieben and R. A. de Bie

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:122

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Injury-related fear contributed to disability in chronic ankle instability (CAI), while there still lacked exploration on the appraisal processes of the injury-related stimuli. This study aimed to compare the ...

    Authors: Xiao’ao Xue, Shengkun Li, Hongyun Li, Qianru Li and Yinghui Hua

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:121

    Content type: Research

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  32. To improve propulsion during running, athletes often wear spike shoes designed for training and/or competition. Running with spike shoes may cause pain and/or injuries. To address this problem, a modified spik...

    Authors: Amir Ali Jafarnezhadgero, Ehsan Fakhri and Urs Granacher

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:120

    Content type: Research

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  33. Respiratory symptoms are common in competitive swimmers. However, among these and in swimmers at other activity levels the swimming distance, the total spent time in swimming halls and their medical background...

    Authors: Marja Päivinen, Kari Keskinen, Tuula Putus, Urho M. Kujala, Pentti Kalliokoski and Heikki O. Tikkanen

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:119

    Content type: Research

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  34. Hydrofoil technology has changed sailing, significantly increasing its speed and resulting in spectacularity and mass media interest. Although high speed can expose participants to a risk of high-energy trauma...

    Authors: Francesco Feletti, Eric Brymer, Matteo Bonato and Andrea Aliverti

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:118

    Content type: Research

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  35. Anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS) contain testosterone-like androgens and are used as supplements to improve performance, therapeutic measures, appearance, and muscular development.

    Authors: Ameen Mosleh Almohammadi, Anas Mohammed Edriss and Turki Talal Enani

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:117

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Monitoring technology is increasingly accessible to recreational runners. Our aim was to examine patterns of technology use in recreational runners, and its potential association with injury.

    Authors: Richard S. Mayne, Chris M. Bleakley and Mark Matthews

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:116

    Content type: Research

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  37. Lightweight rowers commonly utilize weight loss techniques over 24-h before competition to achieve the qualifying weight for racing. The objective was to investigate, using a quasi-experimental design, whether...

    Authors: Dayton J. Kelly, Sarah L. West, Nathan O’Keeffe and Liana E. Brown

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:115

    Content type: Research

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  38. Physical inactivity is one of the primary factors that leads to obesity and overweight. What is more, it is becoming an increasingly common problem among the population of those who work. The causes of obesity...

    Authors: Katarzyna Kwiecień-Jaguś, Wioletta Mędrzycka-Dąbrowska, Monika Kopeć, Renata Piotrkowska, Katarzyna Czyż-Szypenbejl, Rita Hansdorfer-Korzon, Magdalena Lemska and Piotr Jarzynkowski

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:114

    Content type: Research

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  39. Ankle sprains are the most commonly reported injury in netball. Approximately four in five netball athletes will sustain an ankle sprain, up to half will go on to sustain recurrent ankle sprains, and nine in t...

    Authors: Patrick L. Rowe, Adam L. Bryant and Kade L. Paterson

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:113

    Content type: Research

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  40. Obesity is considered an epidemic problem with an increasing number of individuals affected. The physical and psychological complaints associated with obesity point to the importance of implementing effective ...

    Authors: Julian Fritsch, Katharina Feil, Susanne Weyland, Detlef Schmidt and Darko Jekauc

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:112

    Content type: Study protocol

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  41. In Taekwondo competitions, the rule is that points are scored when the impact of the kick reaches a predetermined threshold of strength. This study aimed to explore the adequacy of the protector and scoring sy...

    Authors: Chang-Hwan Choi, Hyeri Oh and Minsoo Jeon

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:110

    Content type: Research

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  42. Bowling in cricket is a complex sporting movement which, despite being well characterised, still produces a significant number of injuries each year. Fast bowlers are more likely to be injured than any other p...

    Authors: Matthew Constable, Daniel Wundersitz, Rodrigo Bini and Michael Kingsley

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:109

    Content type: Research

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  43. A specific walking speed minimizing the U-shaped relationship between energy cost of transport per unit distance (CoT) and speed is called economical speed (ES). To investigate the effects of reduced body weig...

    Authors: Daijiro Abe, Shunsuke Sakata, Kiyotaka Motoyama, Naoki Toyota, Hidetsugu Nishizono and Masahiro Horiuchi

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:107

    Content type: Research

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  44. Contemporary literature indicates that a higher body mass index (BMI) serves as a risk factor for metabolic disease and is also correlated with greater disease severity. Subsequently, it has been linked to inc...

    Authors: Athalie Redwood-Brown, Grant William Ralston and Jennifer Wilson

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:106

    Content type: Research

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  45. Unilateral resistance training increases the strength of the contralateral non-trained homologous muscles known as the cross-education effect. We tested the hypothesis that unilateral eccentric resistance trai...

    Authors: Shigeru Sato, Riku Yoshida, Ryosuke Kiyono, Kaoru Yahata, Koki Yasaka, Kazunori Nosaka and Masatoshi Nakamura

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:105

    Content type: Research article

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  46. People worldwide have a high intake of caffeine. Active adults are among the group of people who have always been interested in caffeine as an ergogenic aid. This study aims at examining the association betwee...

    Authors: Zeina Tayba, Yonna Sacre, Randa Attieh and Haider Mannan

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:104

    Content type: Research

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  47. Previous studies have typically measured velocity and power parameters during the push-up, either using one or two force platforms. The purpose of the study was to compare the force, velocity, and power parame...

    Authors: Zhanxin Sha and Boyi Dai

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:103

    Content type: Technical advance

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  48. This study aimed to investigate the interaction effect of aerobic exercise and vitamin D supplementation on inflammation (TNF-α, IL-6, CC16, SP-D, and CC16/SP-D ratio) and lung function (FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC r...

    Authors: Leila Nikniaz, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Hooman Nateghian, Zeinab Nikniaz, Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi and Hadi Pourmanaf

    Citation: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation 2021 13:102

    Content type: Research article

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