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Table 4 Angle ranges of lower limbs during forward and backward walking

From: Backward walking training improves balance in school-aged boys

   Left Right
   Forward Backward Forward Backward
Hip Minimum 114.03 (13.09) 113.52 (9.65) 119.25 (15.03) 115.89 (15.83)*
  Maximum 139.79 (8.99) 132.97 (7.66)** 144.03 (13.93) 137.22(14.83)**
  Range 25.76 (5.33) 19.45 (3.31)** 24.77 (5.53) 21.33 (6.15)
Knee Minimum 114.14 (8.70) 123.53(11.07)** 112.99 (7.00) 121.07(11.01)**
  Maximum 173.05 (6.27) 171.78 (4.59) 173.53 (4.78) 173.70 (4.15)
  Range 58.91 (9.15) 48.25 (9.19)** 60.54 (7.01) 52.63 (8.87)*
Ankle Minimum 91.10 (11.99) 81.92 (6.49)** 90.54 (10.87) 78.45 (5.14)**
  Maximum 123.01 (9.24) 109.14(10.26)** 121.77 (9.99) 104.26 (3.56)**
  Range 31.91 (8.24) 27.22 (6.41) 31.23 (8.63) 25.80 (5.16)*
  1. * P <0.05, ** P < 0.01, vs Forward.