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Table 6 Summary of studies investigating sex differences in knee and hip internal rotation angles and moments during a vertical landing task

From: Sex-dimorphic landing mechanics and their role within the noncontact ACL injury mechanism: evidence, limitations and directions

References Population Landing Task Result†
  Category Mean Age (years) Double-Leg vs. Single Leg Height (cm) at IC peak RoM
Knee Internal Rotation Angle      
   Earl et al. [23] Adult 22.8 Double 31 --- 0 ---
   Kiriyama et al. [33] Adolescent 17.0 Single 20 --- + ---
   Lephart et al. [34] Adult-Athlete 20.3 Single 20 --- 0 ---
   Nagano et al. [35] Adult-Athlete 19.6 Single 30 0 +a ---
   TOTAL*     % (-/+/0) 0/0/100 0/50/50 ---
Knee Internal Rotation Moment      
   Chaudhari et al. [9] Adult 19.9 Double 30.48 --- 0 ---
Hip Internal Rotation Angle       
   Earl et al. [23] Adult 22.8 Double 31 --- 0 ---
   Lephart et al. [34] Adult-Athlete 20.3 Single 20 --- + ---
Hip Internal Rotation Moment      
   Chaudhari et al. [9] Adult 19.9 Double 30.48 --- 0 ---
  1. † +: greater value in female subjects; -: smaller value in female subjects; 0: no differences between sexes; ---: not investigated
  2. a knee internal/external rotation angle at peak vertical ground reaction force
  3. * Percentage of studies having found lower (-), greater (+), and similar (0) values in female subjects in comparison with male subjects
  4. IC: initial ground contact; RoM: range of motion