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Table 2 Reviewed papers about electromyography of physical exercise in water

From: Surface electromyography during physical exercise in water: a systematic review

Study Subjects Tasks [in water] Comparison [land-based] Muscles Clinical contribution
[Castillo-Lozano et al., 2013] [10] 16 healthy adults 3 arm elevation movements [flexion, abduction, and scaption] through 0° to 90° The same exercises ES, UT, PM, AD, MD, LD Muscle activity levels were significantly lower in water compared with dry land at 30°/sec and 45°/sec but significantly higher at 90°/sec
[Cuesta-Vargas et al., 2013] [11] 10 healthy subjects Lower limb and trunk muscles MVC and the STS task The same MVC and STS task VM, RF, BF, TA, GM, SOL, RA, ES Muscle activity was significantly lower on water than land-based signals by MVC from VM, RF, BF, TA, GM and SOL. The muscle activity was higher in water for RA and ES
[Cuesta-Vargas et al., 2013] [12] Ten healthy subjects MVC and TUG The same exercises RF, BF, TA, GM, SOL, RA, ES The muscle activation of the trunk and the lower limb [VM RF, BF, TA, GM and SOL] were lower in water compared to dry land, when performing a TUG test
[Bressel et al., 2011] [13] 11 physically active young males Abdominal hollowing, abdominal bracing and pelvic tilts The same exercises RA, EO, LA, MT, ES EMG signals for all muscles were lower for all exercises performed in water than on land, except ES, which had the same during mediolateral pelvic tilts
[Silvers and Dolny, 2011] [14] 12 recreational young male runners MVC tests of each muscle tested The same MVC tests VM, RF, BF, TA, GM There were no differences in EMG signals between environments
[Alberton et al., 2011] [15] 12 physically active young and healthy women Stationary running at submaximal intensities and at maximal velocity The same exercises RF, VL, ST, BF At submaximal intensities EMG signals were lower in water, but at maximal effort were similar between environments
[Pinto et al., 2010] [16] 9 healthy young women MVC tests of elbow flexion and extension, and for hip flexion and extension The same MVC tests BB, TB, RF, BF There were no differences in EMG signals between environments
[Masumoto et al., 2009] [17] 7 healthy young subjects Deep water running [DWR] at three levels of intensity Treadmill running at three levels of intensity RF, BF, TA, GA TA and GA EMG signals during DWR were lower than during treadmill running at all RPE conditions. But RF, BF EMG signals were similar in both environments at all RPE conditions
[Barela and Duarte, 2008] [18] 10 elderly individuals Walking at self-selected comfortable speeds The same activity TA, GM, VL, BF, TFL, RA, ES The EMG activation patterns were different for all muscles [except GM, which was similar] between water and land
[Kaneda, Wakabayashi, Sato, Uekusa, & Nomura, 2008] [19] 9 healthy young males DWR and walking at self-determined slow, moderate and fast paces Walking at self-determined slow, moderate and fast paces TA, SOL, GM, RF, VL, BF The EMG signal of the BF during DWR was higher than during land water or water walking. Of the RF, during DWR was higher than during land walking, but similar to water walking. SOL, GM and VL EMG signals were lower during DWR
[Kaneda et al., 2009] [20] 9 healthy young males DWR and walking at self-determined slow, moderate and fast paces Walking at self-determined slow, moderate and fast paces AL, GMa, GMe, RA, EO, ES EMG signals were higher during DWR than during land walking and water walking
[Masumoto et al., 2008] [9] 9 healthy female older subjects Walking on an underwater treadmill at three speeds and against a current Walking on a treadmill at three different speeds VM, RF, BF, TA, GL EMG signals during walking in water were lower than when walking land-based at all speed conditions
[Chevutschi et al., 2007] [21] 7 young women Walking at a comfortable speed The same activity SOL, RF, ES SOL EMG signal was less during water walking than during land walking, RF EMG signal was similar in both environments, and the ES EMG signal was higher during water walking than during land walking
[Kaneda et al., 2007] [22] 9 healthy young males DWR and walking at self-determined slow, moderate and fast paces Walking at self-determined slow, moderate and fast paces TA, SOL, GM, RF, BF During DWR, SOL, GM and BF showed lower EMG signal than during land walking and water walking. During water walking, SOL and GAS showed lower activity than during land walking
[Shono et al., 2007] [23] 8 healthy older women Walking on an underwater treadmill at a three different water-flow speeds Walking on a treadmill a three different speeds TA, GM, VM, RF, BF At the same velocity, the EMG signals of TA, VM and BF were higher during water walking than during land walking, whereas those of RF and GM were similar in both environments
[Barela et al., 2006] [24] 10 healthy adults Walking at self-selected comfortable speeds The same activity TA, GM, VL, BF, TFL, RA, ES The EMG activation patterns were different for all muscles [except GM, which was similar] between water and land
[Masumoto et al., 2005] [25] 6 healthy young males Walking backward on an underwater treadmill at three speeds and against a current Walking backward on a treadmill at three different speeds GMe, VM, BF, TA, GL, RA, ES At all speeds, the EMG signals while walking in water [both with and without a current] were lower than when walking land-based [with the exception of the ES, which was higher during water walking]
[Masumoto et al., 2004] [26] 6 healthy young males Walking on an underwater treadmill at three speeds and against a current Walking on a treadmill at three different speeds GMe, VM, BF, TA, GL, RA, ES EMG signals during walking in water [both with and without a water current] were lower than walking land-based
[Miyoshi et al., Akai, 2004] [27] 15 healthy young males Walking at comfortable, slower and faster speed The same activities GM, RF, TA, BF With the increase of walking speed during water walking, the GM and BF activities were increased as compared to each EMG activity during land walking, but there were no changes in TA and RF EMG activities
[Pöyhönen and Avela, 2002] [28] 6 healthy young males MVC test of plantar flexion The same MVC test SOL, GM There were no differences in EMG signals between environments
[Pöyhönen et al., 2001] [29] 18 healthy young subjects Maximal knee extension-flexion efforts against resistance in a sitting position Maximum isometric and isokinetic force production sitting on an isokinetic dynamometer ST, VM, VL, BF Maximal activity during the knee extension and the activity at 90° of the VM and VL were lower in water than land-based. Maximal activity during the knee flexion of the ST and BF was higher in water than land-based, whereas, the activity at 90° was lower in water than land-based
[Kelly et al., 2000] [30] 6 healthy young males Elevation of the arm in the scapular plane with neutral humeral rotation at three different speeds The same activities AD, MD, PD At slow and medium speed, EMG signals were lower in water than land-based, however there were no differences between environments at fast speed
[Pöyhönen et al., 1999] [31] 12 healthy adults women Maximal and submaximal isometric force production of the quadriceps in a sitting position The same activities VM, VL, BF EMG signals were lower during maximal and submaximal contractions in water than land-based
[Fujisawa et al., 1998] [32] 8 healthy young males Isometric exercises of shoulder flexion, abduction and rotation The same exercises AD, MD, PD, PM, LD During flexion, abduction and maximal external rotation, the EMG signals were lower in water than land-based
  1. Rectus abdominis [RA], external oblique abdominis [EO], lower abdominals [LA], multífidus [MT], erector spinae [ES], quadriceps – vastus medialis [VM], quadriceps – rectus femoris [RF], quadriceps – vastus lateralis [VL], bíceps femoris [BF], tibialis anterior [TA], gastrocnemius [GA], gastrocnemius medialis [GM], gastrocnemius lateralis [GL], semitendinosus [ST], bíceps brachii [BB], tríceps brachii [TB], tensor fasciae latae [TFL], soleus [SOL], adductor longus [AL], gluteus maximus [GMa], Gluteus medius [GMe], anterior deltoids [AD], middle deltoids [MD], posterior deltoids [PD], pectoralis mayor [PM], latissimus dorsi [LD], upper trapezius [UT].