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Table 2 Changes in race times for men

From: Nation related participation and performance trends in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ from 1985 to 2012

A: Change in race times for the annual top ten men between 1985 and 2012
Country Race time in 1985 (min) Race time in 2012 (min) Change absolute (min) Change in percent (%)  
Brazil# 741 ± 118 586 ± 14 −155 ± 31 −20.9  
Austria* 693 ± 76 579 ± 11 −114 ± 24 −16.4  
Great Britain 695 ± 21 586 ± 23 −109 ± 24 −15.7  
Switzerland# 652 ± 39 549 ± 21 −103 ± 23 −15.5  
Germany 627 ± 34 537 ± 24 −89 ± 15 −14.2  
Australia 629 ± 19 540 ± 22 −89 ± 22 −14.1  
Canada 639 ± 20 583 ± 27 −56 ± 21 −8.7  
United States 576 ± 19 538 ± 17 −39 ± 18 −6.7  
Japan 651 ± 19 617 ± 16 −34 ± 17 −5.2  
New Zealand 652 ± 39 630 ± 44 −22 ± 39 −3.3  
France§ 569 ± 33 551 ± 23 −18 ± 22 −3.1  
B: Multi-level regression analyses for changes in race times for the annual top men between 1985 and 2012
Country ß SE ( ß ) Stand. ß T P
Brazil# −4.183 0.412 −0.472 −10.123 < 0.001
Austria* −3.872 0.387 −0.561 −9.999 < 0.001
Great Britain −4.012 0.328 −0.646 −12.221 < 0.001
Switzerland# −2.760 0.251 −0.565 −11.012 < 0.001
Germany −2.360 0.203 −0.580 −11.647 < 0.001
Canada −1.765 0.244 −0.404 −7.237 < 0.001
Japan −1.847 0.231 −0.439 −7.985 < 0.001
New Zealand −1.847 0.231 −0.439 −7.985 < 0.001
France§ −2.209 0.327 −0.408 −6.747 < 0.001
C: Multi-level regression analyses for change in race times for the annual top men between 1985 and 2012 with correction for multiple participations
Country ß SE ( ß ) Stand. ß T P
Brazil# −4.183 0.412 −0.472 −10.123 < 0.001
Austria* −3.872 0.387 −0.561 −9.999 < 0.001
Great Britain −4.012 0.328 −0.646 −12.221 < 0.001
Switzerland# −2.760 0.251 −0.565 −11.012 < 0.001
Germany −2.360 0.203 −0.580 −11.647 < 0.001
Canada −1.765 0.244 −0.404 −7.237 < 0.001
Japan −1.847 0.231 −0.439 −7.985 < 0.001
New Zealand −1.847 0.231 −0.439 −7.985 < 0.001
France§ −2.209 0.327 −0.408 −6.747 < 0.001
  1. #= for Swiss men, the first year with at least ten finishers was in 1988, *= for Austrian men, the first year with at least ten finishers was in 1987, §= for French men, the first year with ten finishers was in 1989, #= for Brazilian men, the first year of ten finishers was in 1987, = for athletes from New Zealand, the first year with ten men was 1986.