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Table 2 Echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements evaluated before and following exercise in female and male floor-ball players

From: Gender differences in myocardial function and arterio-ventricular coupling in response to maximal exercise in adolescent floor-ball players

Parameters Pre-exercise Post-exercise
Male (n) Female (n) Male (n) Female (n)
HR (bmp) 71 ± 12 (27) 77 ± 10 (24) 78 ± 11 (27) 84 ± 11 (24)
Systolic BP (mmHg) 130 ± 15* (27) 119 ± 7 (24) 122 ± 9* (27) 114 ± 7 (24)
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 70 ± 8 (27) 71 ± 9 (24) 68 ± 10 (27) 68 ± 7 (24)
LVEDD (mm) 51 ± 4* (27) 48 ± 3 (24) 49 ± 2*(27) 46 ± 3 (24)
LVESD (mm) 34 ± 3 (27) 34 ± 4 (24) 33 ± 2 (27) 33 ± 3 (24)
LVEDV (mL) 121 ± 17* (27) 92 ± 19 (24) 110 ± 18* (27) 86 ± 18 (24)
LVEDVi(mL/m2) 65 ± 7* (27) 54 ± 9 (24) 59 ± 8* (27) 50 ± 8 (24)
LVESV (mL) 49 ± 8 (27) 37 ± 9 (24) 48 ± 10 (27) 36 ± 11 (24)
SV (mL) 74 ± 11* (27) 58 ± 9 (23) 64 ± 10* (27) 53 ± 9 (23)
SVi (mL/m2) 40 ± 5* (27) 34 ± 5 (23) 34 ± 5* (27) 31 ± 4 (23)
EF (%) 59 ± 4 (27) 60 ± 5 (24) 56 ± 5** (27) 60 ± 6 (24)
LA area (cm2) 18 ± 3* (27) 16 ± 3 (24) 17 ± 4 (27) 15 ± 3 (24)
2D Strain LV 20 ± 1.5** (27) 21.5 ± 2.4 (24) 17.9 ± 1.5* (27) 20.2 ± 2.7 (24)
S′LV (cm/s) 9.0 ± 1.0 (25) 8.5 ± 1.1 (23) 8.7 ± 1.3 (25) 8.4 ± 1.1 (23)
E′LV (cm/s) 15.2 ± 2.2 (25) 14.7 ± 2.6 (23) 13.9 ± 2.3 (25) 13.6 ± 2.9 (23)
A′LV (cm/s) 6.9 ± 1.6 (25) 6.1 ± 1.4 (23) 6.3 ± 1.5 (25) 6.4 ± 1.7 (23)
IVRT′ (ms) 62 ± 13 (26) 62 ± 13 (23) 61 ± 15 (26) 66 ± 14 (23)
E (m/s) 0.9 ± 0.2 (27) 1 ± 0.2 (24) 0.8 ± 0.1 (27) 0.9 ± 0.2 (24)
A (m/s) 0.4 ± 0.1 (27) 0.5 ± 0.1 (24) 0.5 ± +0.8 (27) 0.5 ± 0.1 (24)
DT (ms) 220 ± 52 (27) 203 ± 43 (24) 193 ± 51 (27) 188 ± 42 (24)
Ees (mmHg/mL) 2.9 ± 0.5 (27) 3.1 ± 0.6 (20) 2.7 ± 0.6* (27) 3.5 ± 1 (19)
Ea (mmHg/mL) 1.61 ± 0.23* (27) 1.86 ± 0.31 (19) 1.74 ± 0.28 (27) 1.98 ± 0.39 (18)
Eai (mmHg/mL/m2) 3.0 ± 0.5* (27) 3.1 ± 0.4 (19) 3.3 ± 0.7 (27) 3.3 ± 0.5 (18)
Ea/Ees 0.59 ± 0.1 (27) 0.63 ± 0.12 (18) 0.7 ± 0.33 (27) 0.59 ± 0.16 (18)
Stiffness (mmHg/mL) 0.82 ± 0.17 (27) 0.82 ± 0.25 (19) 0.86 ± 0.21 (27) 0.88 ± 0.2 (18)
TPR/T (mmHg/mL) 1.07 ± 0.21 (27) 1.21 ± 0.30 (19) 1.06 ± 0.17 (27) 1.16 ± 0.32 (18)
PCWP (mmHg) 9.4 ± 1.7** (26) 10.3 ± 1.7 (23) 9.2 ± 1.9** (27) 10.1 ± 1.6 (24)
RVEDD basal (mm) 37 ± 4** (27) 34 ± 4 (24) 37 ± 5* (27) 33 ± 3 (24)
RA area (cm2) 15 ± 3** (27) 13 ± 2 (24) 14 ± 3** (27) 12 ± 2 (24)
2D Strain RV 29.6 ± 4.7 (27) 32.1 ± 4.5 (23) 27.9 ± 4.1 (27) 29.8 ± 3.2 (23)
S′RV (cm/s) 14.4 ± 2.2 (27) 14.5 ± 2.0 (22) 14.4 ± 2.0 (27) 13.5 ± 1.7 (22)
E′RV (cm/s) 17.3 ± 2.0 (27) 17.7 ± 3.3 (22) 15.4 ± 2.9 (27) 16.0 ± 4.0 (22)
A′RV (cm/s) 10.1 ± 2.9 (26) 10.5 ± 2.8 (22) 9.5 ± 2.5 (26) 10.3 ± 3.4 (22)
MPIRV 0.4 ± 0.2 (27) 0.4 ± 0.1 (24) 0.5 ± 0.1 (27) 0.5 ± 0.2 (24)
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD. HR denotes heart rate; BP, blood pressure; LVEDD, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic diameter; LVESD, LV end-systolic diameter; LVEDV; LV end-diastolic volume; LVEDVi, LVEDV indexed to body surface area; LVESV, LV end-systolic volume; SV, stroke volume; SVi, stroke volume indexed to body surface area; EF, ejection fraction; LA, left atrium; 2D strainLV, 2-dimensional global LV strain; S′LV E′LV A′LV, mean value of peak systolic, early and lateral diastolic longitudinal myocardial velocity respectively in basal LV septal and lateral wall; E, peak early transmitral flow velocity, A; peak transmitral flow velocity due to atrial contraction; DT; deceleration time; Ees; end-systolic LV elastance; Ea, arterial elastance; Eai; arterial elastance normalized to body surface area; TPR/T, ratio between the total peripheral vascular resistance and the heart rate; PCWP, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; RVEDD, right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic diameter at basal region of the RV; 2D strainRV, 2-Dimensional strain at the lateral RV wall; RA, right atrium; S′RV, E′RV and A′RV, mean value of peak systolic, early and lateral diastolic longitudinal myocardial velocity respectively in lateral RV wall; MPIRV, RV myocardial performance index; *Denotes statistical significance of p < 0.01 between the sexes; **Denotes statistical significance of p < 0.05 between the sexes; Denotes statistical significance of p < 0.05 between baseline and post exercise for the same sex.