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Table 2 Summary of within and between group changes on clinical outcomes

From: The feasibility and effectiveness of high-intensity boxing training versus moderate-intensity brisk walking in adults with abdominal obesity: a pilot study

Outcome measures Boxing (n = 6)   Walking (n = 6)   P (between groups) Effect size (between groups)
Week 0 Week 16 %Change P Effect size(within group) Week 0 Week 16 %Change P Effect size(within group)
Obesity outcomes:             
Waist circumference (cm) 111.1 (18.0) 104.4 (12.2) -5.3 (7.7) 0.19 0.48 98.4 (6.2) 97.8 (6.7) -0.6 (2.7) 0.61 0.10 0.86 0.004
Body mass (kg) 95.7 (21.0) 90.8 (15.1) -4.1 (7.0) 0.23 0.29 85.6 (9.1) 85.4 (9.4) -0.3 (1.2) 0.63 0.02 0.93 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 32.0 (5.9) 30.5 (4.0) -4.0 (7.3) 0.25 0.33 30.8 (2.6) 30.7 (3.0) -0.3 (1.8) 0.78 0.03 1 0
Body fat percentage (%) 33.5 (10.1) 29.5 (11.1) -13.2 (10.6) 0.047 0.41 37.3 (13.1) 35.0 (11.3) -5.4 (7.5) 0.17 0.21 0.95 0.004
Cardiovascular outcomes:             
Resting HR (beats/min) 66 (4) 62 (6) -6 (8) 0.10 0.86 75 (12) 74 (11) -1 (4) 0.43 0.09 0.34 0.13
Resting SBP (mmHg) 137 (12) 123 (8) -10 (7) 0.026 1.50 127 (4) 129 (8) +2 (5) 0.45 0.34 0.10 0.33
Resting DBP (mmHg) 89 (8) 82 (9) -8 (8) 0.074 0.90 89 (7) 89 (5) 0 (7) 1 0 0.16 0.26
Augmentation Index (%) 17.0 (15.4) 7.2 (15.7) -126.7 (128.4) <0.001 0.69 12.0 (18.5) 16.8 (12.6) +41.4 (95.2) 0.41 0.33 0.064 0.41
Pulse Pressure (mmHg) 47 (9) 41 (5) -10 (23) 0.28 0.90 38 (3) 41 (4) +9 (14.0) 0.22 0.93 0.36 0.12
VO2max (ml/kg min) 27.9 (2.4) 32.5 (5.0) +16.9 (18.6) 0.06 1.28 29.0 (6.4) 28.8 (8.0) -1.1 (16.3) 0.93 0.03 0.34 0.13
VO2max (L/min) 2.691 (0.688) 2.970 (0.802) +10.2 (6.7) 0.015 0.41 2.490 (0.691) 2.454 (0.761) -1.6 (16.5) 0.78 0.05 0.22 0.21
HRQoL outcomes:             
Physical Functioning 92.5 (6.1) 96.7 (2.6) +4.7 (4.4) 0.042 0.98 91.7 (11.7) 90.8 (8.0) -0.12 (9.3) 0.81 0.10 0.11 0.32
General Health 53.3 (8.8) 65.0 (8.9) +25.2 (32.1) 0.07 1.45 65.8 (20.1) 62.5 (25.1) -7.3 (16.8) 0.44 0.15 0.21 0.22
Vitality 50.0 (28.5) 66.3 (191) +54.8 (49.9) 0.024 0.74 68.8 (32.6) 59.7 (33.8) -19.1 (28.3) 0.043 0.30 0.02 0.54
  1. Data expressed as mean (standard deviation). Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, HR heart rate, SBP systolic blood pressure, VO 2peak peak oxygen consumption. Effect size = Cohen’s d.