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Table 2 Characteristics of included randomized controlled trials

From: The effectiveness of physiotherapy treatment on balance dysfunction and postural instability in persons with Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors Participant characteristics Intervention types and intensity for experiment and control groups Outcomes
(Ashburn et al. 2007) [7] n = 142 (Exp = 70, Control = 72). Exp group: muscle strengthening, range of movement, balance training, walking training and Strategies for falls prevention, movement initiation and compensation. • Rates of Falling
• Sex :male = ___female = ___ Con group: visited by nurse For 6 months • Functional reach
• Mean Age of expt. =72.7(9.6) • BBS timed up and go test
• Mean Age of control. =71.6(8.8)
• Baseline UPDRS: Exp = 19.8(8.3) and Control = 22.2(11.9)
(Smania et al. 2010) [8] n = 64 (Exp = 33, control = 31) Exp group: Exercises of self-destabilization of the COBM, Inducing destabilization of COBM externally and coordination between leg and arm movements during walking &locomotor dexterity over an obstacle course • BBS
• Mean Age of expt. =67.64 (7.41) Cont.group:- active joint mobilization, muscle stretching, and motor coordination exercises. • ABC
• Mean Age of control = 67.26(7.18) 21 treatment sessions of 50 min each for one month. • UPDRS
• idiopathic PD and PI (Hoehn and Yahr [H&Y] stage 3–4) • modified Hoehn and Yahr scale
(Protas et al., 2005) [24] n = 18(Expt. = 9, Control = 9) Exp group I: Gait training(walking on a treadmill at a speed greater than over ground walking speed) Gait parameters
Mean age of exp. = 71.3(7.4) Exp group II [PNF]: Basic and Gait PNF, movement guidance, support & resistance for 1 h/day, three times per week for 8 weeks 5-step test report of falls
Mean age of contrl. = 73.7 (8.5)
(Schlenstedt et al. 2015) [27] n = 32(Res. Training : n =17, balance training: n = 15; 2x/week for 7 weeks, Each session lasted 60 min. Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale
Mean age of exp. = 75.7 ± 5.5 Resistance training group: strengthening exercise was given to lower limb muscles Timed-up-and-go-test (TUG)
Mean age of contl. = 75.7 ± 7.2 Balance training group : stance- and gait tasks which require feed forward and feedback postural control UPDRS
(Conradsson et al. 2015) [25] (n = 100), experimental group = 51 Expt: reactive postural adjustments to control their balance during single-tasking(a 10-week Hi Balance program) • Mini BESTest,
Control group =49. Control: normal physical activities and participation in ongoing rehabilitation program. • gait velocity
Mean Age of expt. =72.9 (6.0) • Falls Efficacy Scale
Mean Age of control. =73.6 (5.3)
(Shen and Mak 2014) [29] n = 51, (Expt., = 26) and (Contrl, = 25). Expt : technology assisted balance + gait training • falls rate
Mean Age of expt. =63.3 (8.0) Control :- strengthening exercises (3 sessions/week, separated by 4 weeks of selfsupervised home-based training at a frequency of 5 sessions/week • single-leg-stance time,
Mean Age of control. =65.3 (8.5) • stride length
(Allen et al. 2010) [26] n = 45 (Expt. =21 and Contrl. = 24) Exp’t: Multi component exercise program (home-based) • falls risk score
Mean Age of expt. =66 (10) 3 sessions/week/40-60 min/session/week for 30 days for 72 sessions • timed sit-to-stand
Mean Age of control. =68 (7) Control: Usual care (no exercise) • falls rate
(Cakit et al. 2007) [28] n = 31 (expt. = 21, control = 10), mean age =71.8 ± 6.4 Experimental group: Incremental speed-dependent treadmill training for 8 weeks. • UPDRS
baseline UPDRS 18.14 _ 9.32 control group: not really mentioned • BBS
• Dynamic Gait Index
• FES