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Table 4 Summary of results of included randomized controlled trials (n = 8)

From: The effectiveness of physiotherapy treatment on balance dysfunction and postural instability in persons with Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Results
(Ashburn et al. 2007) [7] 1. Functional reach test(cm): − Experimental group at (start/8 weeks/6 months) = 23.2/23.6/23.8
            Control group at (start/8 weeks/6months) = 25.0/24.0/22.5
2. Berg balance scale(BBS) (o-56) : the higher the score, the risk of falling decreases
              Experimental group at (start/8 weeks/6 months) = 44.3/45.8/45.3
              Control group at (start/8weeks/6months) = 43.6./45.2/44.6
(Smania et al. 2010) [8] 1. BBS(0–56):- Experimental group (before/after/1 month) =44.5/49.8/49.9
      Control group (before/after/1 month) = 41.8/41.0/40.85
2. Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale ABC(0–100):- Experimental group (before/after/1 month) = 54.3/61.3./62.3
                        Control group (before/after/1 month) = 49.5/48.2/47.0
3. Number of falls : Experimental group (before/after/1 month) = 4.3/1.3/1.3
        Control group (before/after/1 month) = 4.6/4.1/4.1
(Protas et al. 2005) [24] Gait and step perturbation training resulted in a reduction in falls and improvements in gait and dynamic balance.
(Schlenstedt et al. 2015) [27] 1. FAB scale :- resistance group 22.2 ± 4.8
      Balance group 24.5 ± 4.6,(P value = 0.123)
(Conradsson et al. 2015) [25] 1. Falls Efficacy scale score:- Experimental group (baseline/post test = 30.1(/27.3
            Control group (baseline/post test = 28.8/26.5
(Shen and Mak 2014) [29] There were fewer fallers in the expt. than in the Cont. group at Post 3 m, Post 6 m, and Post 12 m (P < .05). In addition, the expt. group had lower fall rate than the Cont. group at Post 3 m, 6 m and 15 m
(Allen et al. 2010) [26] 1. PD falls risk score: Experimental group (baseline(SD)/post test(SD) =34(25)/23(22)
         Control group (baseline(SD)/post test(SD) = 39(34)/38(31)
2. Falls Efficacy scale score :- Experimental groups(baseline/post test = 28.1(12.1)/25.8(7.9)
            Control groups baseline/post test =29.1(10.3)/30.4(10.8)
(Cakit et al. 2007) [28] 1. BBS : Experimental group (baseline/8 weeks = 37.0 ± 9.41/44.09 ± 7.11
   Control Group (baseline/8 weeks = 42.6 ± 9.37/41.4 ± 10.65
2. Falls Efficacy Scale : expt. group(baseline/8 weeks. = 37.72 ± 9.29/25.45 ± 7.46
         Control group(baseline/8 weeks. = 26.8 ± 8.06/29.2 ± 9.87