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Table 5 Joint of basal with resting hormone levels of athletes induced for NFOR/FOR by overload training

From: Hormonal aspects of overtraining syndrome: a systematic review

Hormone Quantity of studies (% of total basal and resting levels) Normal levels (%) Reduced levels (%) Increased levels (%)
Cortisol 22 (53.7%) 16 (72.7%) 5 (22.7%) 1 (4.6%)
Total T 17 (41.5%) 11 (64.7%) 5 (29.4%) 1 (5.9%)
T/C ratio 12 (29.3%) 6 (50.0%) 5 (41.7%) 1 (8.3%)
ACTH 10 (24.4%) 8 (80.0%) - 2 (20.0%)
GH 9 (21.9%) 5 (55.6%) 2 (22.2%) 2 (22.2%)
NUC 8 (19.5%) 4 (50.0%) 2 (25.0%) 2 (25.0%)
Plasma Catecholamines 8 (19.5%) 5 (62.5%) 2 (25.0%) 1 (12.5%)
IGF-1 6 (14.6%) 5 (83.3%) 1 (16.7%) -
Insulin 6 (14.6%) 5 (83.3%) 1 (16.7%) -
LH 5 (12.2%) 4 (80.0%) 1 (20.0%) -
FSH 4 (9.8%) 3 (75.0%) 1 (25.0%) -
Free T 4 (9.8%) 2 (100%) 1 (25.0%) 1 (25.0%)
Aldosterone 4 (9.8%) 2 (50.0%) 1 (25.0%) 1 (25.0%)
Prolactin 4 (9.8%) 4 (100%) - -
TSH 2 (4.9%) 2 (100%) - -
T4 2 (4.9%) 2 (100%) - -
T3 2 (4.9%) 2 (100%) - -
SHBG 2 (4.9%) 1 (50.0%) - 1 (50.0%)
IGFBP-3 2 (4.9%) 1 (50.0%) 1 (50.0%) -
IGF-1/IGFBP-3 2 (4.9%) 1 (50.0%) - 1 (50.0%)
Peptide F 2 (4.9%) 2 (100%) - -
Salivary C 2 (4.9%) - 2 (100%) -
Salivary T 2 (4.9%) 1 (50.0%) 1 (50.0%) -
T/SHBG 1 1 - -
4 PM salivary C 1 - - 1
Fertility 1 - 1 -
Beta-2 muscle receptors 1 - 1 -
  1. NUC Nocturnal urinary catecholamines, T/C testosterone/cortisol ratio, T/SHBG testosterone/sex hormone binding globulin, T3 thyronine, T4 thyroxine, salivary C salivary cortisol, salivary T salivary testosterone, 4 PM salivary C salivary cortisol collcted at 4 PM, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 IGF-1/IGFBP3 ratio, fertility evaluation by semen analysis