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Table 1 Study characteristics and outcomes of the clinical studies

From: Swimming induced pulmonary oedema in athletes – a systematic review and best evidence synthesis

  Cases gender age Water temperature symptoms outcome
Pons 1995 4    18-21 °C Dyspnoea (2), cough (4), froth (4) Resolved within 1 h (3), 8 h (1)
Weiler 1995 8 M = 8 18 23 °C Cough (7), haemoptysis (8) Resolved (6) recurring (2)
Roeggla 1996 1 F = 1 54 14 °C Dyspnoea, cough, froth, haemoptysis Resolved
Lund 2003 3 M = 3 24.3 19 °C Dyspnoea (3), cough (3), confusion (2), blurred vision (1), froth (1) Resolved within 48 h
Adir 2004 70 M = 70 18–19 16-22 °C Dyspnoea (70), cough (67), haemoptysis (39), froth (63), Resolved within 24 h, recurrence (16)
Biswas 2004 1 M = 1 36 < 22 °C Dyspnoea, cough, froth resolved
Shuppak 2004 21 M = 21 18–19 16-18 °C Dyspnoea, cough, froth, haemoptysis Resolved (18), recurring (3)
Wilmshurst 2004 1 M = 1 35 13 °C Dyspnoea, haemoptysis, froth recurrence
Deady 2006 1 F = 1 38 15 °C Dyspnoea, haemoptysis Resolved within 24 h
Beinhart 2007 1 F = 1 54 22 °C dyspnoea resolved
Wenger 2007 1 M = 1 43 20 °C Dyspnoea, froth, chest pain Resolved within 24 h
Noti 2009 1 F = 1 23   Dyspnoea, froth Resolved within 24 h
Carter 2011 3 F = 3 49.7 15-19 °C Dyspnoea (3), froth (2), cough (1), haemoptysis (1), chest pain (2) Resolved (1), Recurrence (1)
Ma 2013 5 M = 5 42.6 < 22 °C Dyspnoea (3), cough (2), Haempotysis (3), froth (1) Resolved within 1 week
North 2013 1 F = 1 26 < 22 °C Dyspnoea, cough, froth Resolved within 48 h
Casey 2014 2 M = 1, f = 1 57.5 < 22 °C Dyspnoea (2), froth (1), cough (1), chest pain (1) Resolved within 24 h
Peacher 2015 41   50.1    
Yamamashi 2015 5 M = 1 41.8 21 °C Dyspnoea (5), haemoptysis (1), cough (1) Resolved within 10 days
Beale 2016 4 M = 4 36.7   Dyspnoea (4), cough (3), haemoptysis (2), froth (3) Resolved (4), recurrence (2)
N = 20 174 M = 165F = 9   13-22 °C Dyspnoea (90), cough (97), froth (89), haemoptysis (58), blurred vision (1), chest pain (3) Resolved (185), recurrence (25)