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Table 2 Mean (SD) measures, and mean difference (95% CI) for stance and vision type

From: The effects of textured insoles on quiet standing balance in four stance types with and without vision

Measure Stance Mean EO (SD) Mean EC (SD) Mean dif. (95% CI)
APSD (mm) Bipedal 3.93 (1.34) 5.17 (2.37) 1.24 (0.69 to 1.8)
Standard Romberg 4.66 (1.79) 5.97 (1.92) 1.31 (0.68 to 1.94)
Tandem Romberg 6.83 (3.66) 10.01 (5.85) 3.18 (1.75 to 4.61)
Unipedal 7.25 (2.33) 12.39 (2.5) 5.14 (4.41 to 5.89)
AP Range (mm) Bipedal 22.19 (6.67) 28.94 (11.69) 6.75 (3.7 to 9.81)
Standard Romberg 25.12 (8.24) 32.21 (8.86) 7.09 (4.53 to 9.66)
Tandem Romberg 39.22 (18.63) 60.95 (36.09) 21.73 (12.43 to 31.02)
Unipedal 42 (14.84) 76.38 (17.61) 34.38 (28.31 to 40.45)
MLSD (mm) Bipedal 1.76 (0.8) 2.1 (1.01) 0.34 (0.12 to 0.56)
Standard Romberg 4.45 (1.31) 5.67 (1.81) 1.22 (0.88 to 1.56)
Tandem Romberg 5.41 (1.02) 10.31 (2.01) 4.9 (4.42 to 5.38)
Unipedal 5.53 (1.12) 10.33 (1.39) 4.8 (4.46 to 5.15)
ML Range (mm) Bipedal 11.99 (6.78) 13.55 (6.33) 1.56 (− 0.42 to 3.55)*
Standard Romberg 23.33 (6.42) 31.08 (9.22) 7.75 (5.86 to 9.65)
Tandem Romberg 29.83 (5.02) 51.63 (11.42) 21.8 (18.65 to 24.95)
Unipedal 29.77 (5.12) 45.99 (6.37) 16.22 (14.41 to 18.02)
Mean Velocity (mm/s) Bipedal 51.02 (14.85) 51.24 (14.58) 0.22 (−1.22 to 1.67)*
Standard Romberg 52.89 (15.9) 53.75 (14.26) 0.86 (−1.1 to 2.84)*
Tandem Romberg 71.71 (16.45) 92.92 (20.06) 21.21 (15.3 to 27.1)
Unipedal 65.31 (12.83) 105.83 (21.41) 40.52 (34.22 to 46.83)
  1. AP Anterior-posterior, ML Medial-lateral, SD Standard deviation, EO Eyes Open, EC Eyes Closed, dif. difference, CI confidence interval
  2. *non-significant change