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Table 9 Study characteristics investigating mean long-term performance improvement from kettlebell training

From: Kettlebell training in clinical practice: a scoping review

Author Participants Observing Exercise Hardstyle
/ Sport /
other
Duration (weeks) Format Freq/wk Load
(kg)
Effect Effect size Control/
comparator
Randomised
n Age (yrs) Weight (kg) Gender Active Kettlebell proficient
/ novice
Ambrozy et al. (2017) [100] 40 27–32 unknown F Y novice hand speed, flexibility, explosive strength, strength endurance, agility, VO2, Wingate test circuit (unknown) other 8 60 mins 3 unknown VO2 + 6.31 ml.kg−1.min−1
Average Power + 8.30 W
Maximum Power + 20.53 W
Bent arm hang + 13 s
Trivial (δ = 0.27, p ≤ 0.05)
Trivial (δ = 0.10, p ≤ 0.05)
Trivial (δ = 0.15, p ≤ 0.05)
Moderate (δ = 1.36, p ≤ 0.05)
Minimally active Y
Beltz et al. (2013) [101] 17 22.1 ± 2.80 (M)
21.5 ± 3.93 (F)
77.7 ± 10.86 (M)
64.5 ± 12.56 (F)
M / F Y novice strength, aerobic capacity, body composition, flexibility, balance, and core strength. circuit hardstyle 8 45–60 min 2 unknown Dynamic balance (PL) + 7.2 cm
VO2 + 5.0 ml.kg− 1.min− 1
Leg press + 41.7 kg
Grip strength + 1.7 kg
Prone plank + 45 s
Moderate (SMD = 1.14, p ≤ 0.05)
Trivial (δ = 0.33, p ≤ 0.05)
Moderate (δ = 0.82, p ≤ 0.05)
Small (δ = 0.42, p ≤ 0.05)
Very large (δ = 1.32, p ≤ 0.05)
Y N
Chen et al. (2018) [98] 33 66.7 ± 5.3 66.3 ± 12.1 F N novice skeletal and appendicular muscle mass, body fat mass, sarcopenia index, pulmonary function, grip strength, isometric back strength, chronic proinflammatory cytokine concentration ×11: swing, deadlift, goblet squat, squat lunge, row, single arm row, biceps curl, triceps extension, two-arm military press, Turkish get up hardstyle 8 60 mins, 5 ex’s, 3 sets, 8–12 reps, 2–3 min rest 2 60–70% 1RM Sarcopenia index − 0.26
Handgrip strength (L) + 4.26 kg
Handgrip strength (R) + 4.71 kg
Back strength + 6.37 kg
Peak expiratory flow + 0.79 L/s
Med/Lrg (δ = 0.79, p ≤ 0.05)
Very large (δ = 1.2, p ≤ 0.05)
Large (δ = 0.88, p ≤ 0.05)
Large (δ = 0.83, p ≤ 0.05)
Med/Lrg (δ = 0.79, p ≤ 0.05)
Y Y
Elbadry et al. (2018) [102] 40 20.17 ± 0.4 75 ± 2.9 F Y novice Standing LJ, softball throw, grip, LL strength, hammer throw unknown other 8 60 mins 3 unknown Standing long jump + 11.37
Softball throw + 6.94
Handgrip strength (L) + 12.72
Handgrip strength (R) + 6.82
Static strength (BS) + 6.06
Static strength (LS) + 9.76
Performance (hammer) + 22.27
Medium (δ = 0.66, p ≤ 0.05)
Huge (δ = 2.74, p ≤ 0.05)
Huge (δ = 2.92, p ≤ 0.05)
Large (δ = 0.94, p ≤ 0.05)
Medium, (δ = 0.64, p ≤ 0.05)
Very large, (δ =1.37, p ≤ 0.05)
Very large (δ = 1.20, p ≤ 0.05)
Y unknown
Falatic et al. (2015) 17 19.7 ± 1.0 64.2 ± 8.2 F Y novice aerobic capacity (VO2) Jay’s MVO2 snatch protocol hardstyle 4 20 mins, 15:15 3 12 VO2max + 2.3 ml.kg− 1.min− 1 Medium (SMD = 0.72, p < 0.05) circuit weight training N
Holmstrup et al. (2016) [103] 18 18–25 unknown F Y novice Sprint performance swing hardstyle 8 10:10 × 8 2 9.1–13.7 Vertical jump + 2.4 cm
Sprint -1 s
Small (SMD = 0.48, p > 0.05)
Trivial (SMD = 0.04, p > 0.05)
N N
Jay et al. (2011) [104] 40 44 ± 8 68 ± 11 M / F N novice self-reported pain (neck/shoulders, back), strength (back, trunk, shoulder), VO2 swing hardstyle 8 10–15 min, 30:60 to 30:30 × 10 3 8–16 Neck/shoulder pain VAS − 1.7
Low back pain VAS − 1.6
Back extension MVC + 19.6 Nm
Trunk flexion MVC + 12.0 Nm
Shoulder elevation MVC + 7.0 Nm
VO2max + 2.9 ml.kg− 1.min− 1
Small (SMD = − 0.94, p ≤ 0.05)
Small (SMD = − 0.89, p ≤ 0.05)
Trivial = (SMD = 0.47, p ≤ 0.05)
Trivial (SMD = 0.29, p > 0.05)
Trivial (SMD = 0.39, p > 0.05)
Trivial (SMD = 0.39, p > 0.05)
Y Y
Jay et al. (2013) [105] 40 44 ± 8 68 ± 11 M / F N novice postural reaction to external perturbation, vertical jump performance swing hardstyle 8 10–15 min, 30:60 to 30:30 × 10 3 8–16 Vertical jump + 1.5 cm
Stopping time -109 ms
Medium (SMD = 1.5, p > 0.05)
Large (SMD = − 2.87, p ≤ 0.05)
Y Y
Lake et al. (2012) 21 18–27 72.58 ± 12.87 M Y novice half squat 1RM and vertical jump height swing hardstyle 6 30:30 × 12 2 12–16 Half squat + 18 kg
Vertical jump + 3 cm
Small (SMD = 0.82, p?)
Small (SMD = 0.60, p?)
  
Manocchia et al. (2013) [106] 37 40.8 ± 12.9 76.6 ± 14.4 M / F Y novice transfers of strength and power + muscular endurance > 20 other 10 60 mins 2 unknown Barbell clean & jerk + 4.2 kg
Barbell bench press + 14.2 kg
Moderate (SMD = 1.17, p < 0.05)
Small (SMD = 0.63, p < 0.05)
  
Maulit et al. (2017) [107] 31 23.1 ± 2.3 83.9 ± 13.8 M Y novice strength and power swing other 4 4 sets × 5 reps to 6 × 4 2 10–12.5% MTP Deadlift 1RM + 8.2 kg
Vertical jump + 1.1 cm
Moderate (SMD = 1.17, p > 0.05)
Small (SMD = 0.63, p > 0.05)
  
Ooraniyan et al. (2018) [108] 30 18–23 unknown M Y novice lower limb strength, muscular strength pistol squat, biceps curl, row, front raise other 6 unknown 3 unknown Lower limb strength
Muscular strength
ameasures not describeda
Large (SMD = 0.40, p ≤ 0.05)
Small (δ = 1.02, p ≤ 0.05)
Moderate (SMD = 1.02, p ≤ 0.05)
Large (δ = 0.99, p ≤ 0.05)
  
Otto et al. (2012) [44] 30 19–26 78.99 ± 10.68 M Y novice strength, power, and body composition swing, accelerated swing, goblet squat other 6 1–3 sets
(3 × 6,4 × 4,4 × 6 then 4 × 6,6 × 4,4 × 6)
2 16 Vertical jump + 0.18 cm
Back squat + 5.58 kg
Power clean + 3.35 kg
Trivial (SMD = 0.05, p ≤ 0.05)
Trivial (SMD = 0.18, p ≤ 0.05)
Trivial (SMD = 0.18, p ≤ 0.05)
  
Parasuraman et al. (2018) [109] 45 18–25 unknown M Y novice Max push-ups, plank endurance various other 6 45 mins 3 unknown Max push-ups + 4
trunk endurance + 57 s
KB > CON, p ≤ 0.05   
Smith et al. (2014) [110] 28 20–29 unknown M / F Y novice post-activation potentiation and vertical jump swing other 8 ×4–6 squat + × 5 CMJS 3 20–36 Vertical jump + 4.62 cm Very small (δ = − 0.04, p > 0.05)   
Kramer et al. (2015) [111] 27 18–26 80.0 (M)
63.9 (F)
M / F Y novice anaerobic power various (×5) other 4a 15:45 × 5 × 2 3 9–16 Mean Power
Peak Power
Rate of Fatigue
Trivial, p > 0.05   
Kruszewski et al. (2017) [112] 24 21.2 ± 1.2 89.83 ± 9.62 M Y novice 40yrd run, agility, CM jump, standing long jump, bench press various Sport 32 Complex 4 16–72 Training effects not reported   
Wade et al. (2016) [113] 17 30.4 ± 6.9 81.4 ± 12.4 M / F Y novice USAF fitness, speed, power, and agility swing other 10 5 × 2 mins, 30s rest 3 6–14 Body fat (2.5%)
Max push-ups [6]
Max sit-ups [3]
1.5-mile run (12 s)
Max grip strength (3.1 kg)
Pro agility (0.1 s)
Vertical jump (1.3 cm)
40-yard dash (0.4 s)
Small (δ = −0.37, p ≤ 0.05)
Very small (δ = − 0.03, p > 0.05)
Small (δ = − 0.47, p > 0.05)
Medium/Large (d = − 0.79, p > 0.05)
Small (δ = 0.10, p > 0.05)
Small (δ = − 0.40, p > 0.05)
Small (δ = 0.36, p > 0.05)
Small (δ = − 0.40, p ≤ 0.05)
  
  1. adiscontinuous