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Table 4 Parameter estimates of the variables using structural equation modeling

From: Attitudes and behavior related to performance-enhancing substance use among elite Saudi football players

Variables and their relation to performance-enhancing drug useEstimateS.ERatio (Estimate/SE)P-value
Legitimacy perceptions0.0330.0510.6540.513
Morality and cheating measures−0.1390.054−2.5490.011
Beliefs about the benefits of doping0.0630.1510.4150.678
Threat or deterrence appraisal−0.3010.068−4.426< 0.001
Beliefs about the reference group’s endorsement−0.2130.058−3.693<  0.001