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Table 5 Comparison of the muscular activity of all six muscles during the diagonal shoulder F/E in the four conditions (pipes). Displayed are the p-values with a statistical difference of p < 0.008

From: Neuromuscular shoulder activity during exercises with different combinations of stable and unstable weight mass

MuscleP vs PGP vs PWP vs PWGPG vs PWPG vs PWGPW vs PWGr
U.TA0.003*0.7940.003*0.0200.6660.002*0.950
DE0.011*0.7450.0170.0270.7400.0660.879
L.TA0.001*0.1200.004*0.0120.2280.0670.934
LD< 0.001*0.529< 0.001*< 0.001*0.302< 0.001*0.769
SA< 0.001*0.1300.001*0.1130.9050.1600.864
PE0.0330.3260.001*0.006*0.8450.2340.747
  1. P: empty pipe (0.5 kg); PG: weight (stable mass; 4.5 kg); PW: water (unstable mass; 1 kg); PWG: water + weight (unstable mass; 4.5 kg); U/L. TA: upper/lower trapezius; DE deltoid, LD latissimus dorsi, SA serratus anterior, PE pectoralis major; r: mean correlation coefficient; *: significant differences α level Bonferroni adjusted