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Table 3 Mean and standard deviation for primary and secondary outcomes in absolute values (n = 60)

From: What is the optimal time-response window for the use of photobiomodulation therapy combined with static magnetic field (PBMT-sMF) for the improvement of exercise performance and recovery, and for how long the effects last? A randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

Outcomes Mean (± standard deviation)
Control
(n = 10)
Placebo
(n = 10)
PBMT-sMF
5 mins (n = 10)
PBMT-sMF
3 h (n = 10)
PBMT-sMF
6 h (n = 10)
PBMT-sMF
1-day (n = 10)
MVC
 Baseline 258.2 (±22.3) 269.8 (±25.7) 281.2 (±19.1) 270.1 (±22.4) 269.2 (±22.2) 282.1 (±32.9)
 Immediately after 166.8 (±24.5) 175.4 (±19.6) 239.6 (±41.6) aaaa, bbbb 239.9 (±34.8) aaaa, bbbb 226.7 (±28.1) aaa, bb 234.0 (±35.9) aaaa, bbb
 1 h 164.2 (±28.0) 172.0 (±18.3) 230.1 (±44.6) aaaa, bbb 233.5 (±32.0) aaaa, bbbb 218.5 (±19.6) aaa, bb 223.3 (±39.8) aaa, bb
 24 h 163.1 (±25.5) 175.9 (±21.4) 232.0 (±32.5) aaaa, bbb, ccc 224.2 (±24.9) aaaa, bb, cc 236.9 (±22.8) aaaa, bbbb, ccc 176.6 (±42.2)
 48 h 161.2 (±24.4) 179.6 (±19.2) 252.5 (±45.4) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 231.2 (±22.9) aaaa, bb, cc 242.2 (±14.3) aaaa, bbbb, ccc 183.5 (±41.2)
CK activity
 Baseline 67.2 (±25.7) 65.7 (±23.2) 67.2 (±26.5) 50.9 (±29.9) 63.9 (±35.5) 68.4 (±32.2)
 Immediately after 232.6 (±35.4) 275.7 (±35.8) 90.0 (±31.7) aaaa, bbbb 67.6 (±31.4) aaaa, bbbb 95.0 (±49.9) aaaa, bbbb 90.0 (±44.2) aaaa, bbbb
 1 h 348.8 (±38.5) 391.5 (±47.7) 75.7 (±26.1) aaaa, bbbb 54.9 (±26.8) aaaa, bbbb 86.9 (±51.0) aaaa, bbbb 65.5 (±26.0) aaaa, bbbb
 24 h 519.4 (±55.4) 455.0 (±80.3) 174.8 (±54.4) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 128.0 (±25.5) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 173.4 (±51.5) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 298.7 (±55.7) aaaa, bbbb
 48 h 769.6 (±63.6) 823.6 (±91.5) 181.6 (±64.2) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 138.1 (±96.6) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 161.1 (±65.7) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 693.3 (±72.4) a, bbbb
DOMS intensity
 Baseline 0.0 (±0.0) 0.0 (±0.0) 0.0 (±0.0) 0.0 (±0.0) 0.0 (±0.0) 0.0 (±0.0)
 Immediately after 51.3 (±12.9) 53.9 (±14.2) 15.0 (±9.6) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 16.5 (±12.4) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 18.5 (±10.0) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 42.6 (±15.2)
 1 h 60.5 (±12.4) 65.5 (±13.4) 12.4 (±11.0) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 14.4 (±8.1) aaaa, bbbb, ccc 13.1 (±9.5) aaaa, bbbb, ccc 36.7 (±18.2) aaa, bbbb
 24 h 65.7 (±13.2) 68.4 (±13.3) 21.3 (±9.2) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 16.2 (±7.4) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 17.8 (±14.1) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 46.6 (±23.1) aa, bbb
 48 h 71.4 (±14.2) 76.2 (±15.1) 21.3 (±9.3) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 27.1 (±11.9) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 20.5 (±13.5) aaaa, bbbb, cccc 64.6 (±12.3)
  1. Continuous variables are expressed as mean (±SD)
  2. MVC Maximum Voluntary Contraction (time = p < 0.0001, group = p < 0.0001, interaction = p < 0.0001); CK Creatine Kinase (time = p < 0.0001, group = p < 0.0001, interaction = p < 0.0001); DOMS Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (time = p < 0.0001, group = p < 0.0001, interaction = p < 0.0001)
  3. a p < 0.05 compared to control, aa p < 0.01 compared to control, aaa p < 0.001 compared to control, aaaa p < 0.0001 compared to control; bb p < 0.01 compared to placebo, bbb p < 0.001 compared to placebo, bbbb p < 0.0001 compared to placebo; cc p < 0.01 compared to PBMT-sMF 1-day, ccc p < 0.001 compared to PBMT-sMF 1-day, cccc p < 0.0001 compared to PBMT-sMF 1-day. Mixed design ANOVA test with Bonferroni post hoc test
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