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Table 1 Progressive training intervention for 26 weeks

From: Systemic cross-talk between brain, gut, and peripheral tissues in glucose homeostasis: effects of exercise training (CROSSYS). Exercise training intervention in monozygotic twins discordant for body weight

ENDURANCE TRAINING (twice a week: one Session 1 and one Session 2)
  Weeks 1–2 Weeks 3–4 Weeks 5–6 Weeks 7–9 Weeks 10–19 Weeks 20–26
Session 1 70% HRmax 30 min 70% HRmax 35 min 70% HRmax 40 min 70% HRmax 45 min 75% HRmax 45 min 80% HRmax 45 min
Session 2 60% HRmax 40 min 60% HRmax 50 min 60% HRmax 60 min 60 % HRmax 60 min 60 % HRmax 60 min 60 % HRmax 60 min
HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING (once a week one type of training)
Type Completion method Content of the training
Circuit Perform 4 rounds of the movements in chronological order. Every round, spend 1 min in each movement: do as many repetitions as you can in 40 s and then rest for 20 s. Rest 1 min between the rounds after completing all movements (1–6).
Above 80% of HRmax
1. Lunges
2. X-jump/jumping rope/mountain climber
3. Back extension
4. Abdominal crunches (obliqual)
5. Burpee
6. Hip thrust
7. Rest
Cross training First, perform 12 min of section A (switch between two movements). Rest 1 min.
Second, perform 6 min of section B. Rest 1 min.
Third, perform 6 min of section C.
Above 80% of HRmax
A. 500-m row/cycling/run
10 air squats
B. 20 kettlebell swings
10 push-ups/pull-ups
C. 30 sit-ups
30 box step-ups
HIIT Make each bout as hard as possible. Return between bouts by walking calmly back to the starting point. Repeat 4–6 times.
Above 90% of HRmax
Choose one:
- Running/cycling/rowing
- Stair-running
- Uphill running
RESISTANCE TRAINING (once a week)
Weeks 1–9 Weeks 10–19 Weeks 20–26 Repetitions (load)
Leg press Leg press/back squat Leg press/back squat 3 × 10, (75% of 1RM)
Leg extension Bulgarian squats Hip extensions 3 × 10, (75% of 1RM)
Push-upsa Cable seated row Bent-over row 3 × 10, (75% of 1RM)
Peck-deck Bench press Bench press 3 × 10, (75% of 1RM)
Lat pulldown Lat pulldown Lat pulldown/Pull-ups 3 × 10, (75% of 1RM)
Shoulder press Shoulder press Shoulder press 3 × 10, (75% of 1RM)
Abdominal crunchesa Abdominal crunchesa Abdominal crunchesa 3 × 10
  1. HRmax maximum heart rate
  2. 1 RM: external load that can be lifted once i.e. one repetition maximum
  3. aBody weight exercise