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Table 1 Summary of two-way ANOVA results for the differences in lipidemia, blood glucose, hypertension, BMI, and fat percent according to group (Experimental vs Control), time (Pre vs Post), and interaction

From: Regular swimming exercise improves metabolic syndrome risk factors: a quasi-experimental study

Variables (units) Group M ± SD Variation Effect size (Partial Eta2)
Pre Post Group Time Interaction
TC (mg/dl) Experimental 225.95 ± 20.10 173.35 ± 13.60* 0.000* 0.000* 0.000* 0.437
Control 231.35 ± 19.97 232.55 ± 20.69 0.327
0.350
HDL (mg/dl) Experimental 33.35 ± 3.08 40.55 ± 2.70* 0.000* 0.000* 0.000* 0.211
Control 33.90 ± 3.02 34.10 ± 2.88 0.296
0.273
LDL (mg/dl) Experimental 157.49 ± 21.31 105.71 ± 14.62* 0.000* 0.000* 0.000* 0.398
Control 161.80 ± 19.71 162.80 ± 21.04 0.311
0.328
TG (mg/dl) Experimental 175.55 ± 13.06 135.45 ± 1096* 0.000* 0.000* 0.000* 0.557
0.488
Control 178.25 ± 7.95 178.50 ± 9.16 0.494
BMI (kg/m2) Experimental 29.05 ± 1.67 26.19 ± 1.84* 0.002* 0.000* 0.000* 0.115
Control 28.84 ± 1.59 28.80 ± 1.74 0.158
0.151
Fat (%) Experimental 26.89 ± 2.70 21.91 ± 2.38* 0.001* 0.000* 0.000* 0.132
Control 26.33 ± 2.34 26.16 ± 2.25 0.229
0.206
BG (mg/dl) Experimental 207.55 ± 37.34 140.80 ± 19.05 0.002* 0.000* 0.000* 0.120
Control 199.20 ± 27.12 188.35 ± 21.80 0.348
0.217
SBP (mmHg) Experimental 157.95 ± 12.56 134.10 ± 13.62* 0.000* 0.000* 0.000* 0.155
Control 157.50 ± 11.33 153.80 ± 7.83 0.273
0.167
DBP (mmHg) Experimental 98.65 ± 3.91 87.55 ± 4.89* 0.001* 0.000* 0.000* 0.147
Control 98.35 ± 6.50 96.50 ± 5.68 0.279
0.165
  1. Note values are: M ± SD Mean ± Standard Deviation, TC Total Cholesterol, HDL High Density of Lipoprotein, LDL Low Density of Lipoprotein, TG Triglycerides, BMI Body Mass Index, BG Blood Glucose, SBP Systolic Blood Pressure, DBP Diastolic Blood Pressure; *Significant differences at p < 0.05.