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Table 4 Baseline data, baseline-adjusted post-test data, as well as pre-to-post changes of psychometric and physiological markers for the male group (GM; n = 12) and the female group (GF; n = 12)

From: Sex-specific effects of small-sided games in basketball on psychometric and physiological markers during Ramadan intermittent fasting: a pilot study

Variables Baseline Post-test Pre-to-post changes
GM GF %↑ p GM GF Group effect GM GF
Mean ± SD (95%IC) Mean ± SD (95%IC) Mean ± SD (95%IC) Mean ± SD (95%IC) d p %↑ d p d p
Sleep 3.58 ± 0.673 (3.15–4.01) 4.33 ± 0.53 (3.99–4.66) 20.95 0.006 6.21 ± 0.17 (5.84–6.57) 6.12 ± 0.17 (5.75–6.48) 0.005 0.742 −1.45 0.93 < 0.001 0.86 < 0.001
Fatigue 3.16 ± 0.96 (2.55–3.77) 4.41 ± 0.57 (4.05–4.78) 39.56 0.001 5.62 ± 0.24 (5.11–6.13) 5.87 ± 0.24 (5.36–6.38) 0.019 0.526 4.45 0.89 < 0.001 0.71 < 0.001
DOMS 1.91 ± 0.74 (1.44–2.39) 2.61 ± 0.60 (2.23–2.99) 36.65 0.019 4.85 ± 0.17 (4.49–5.22) 4.72 ± 0.17 (4.36–5.09) 0.011 0.636 −2.68 0.90 < 0.001 0.86 < 0.001
HI 12.10 ± 2.07 (10.78–13.41) 14.91 ± 1.88 (13.71–16.11) 23.22 0.002 22.14 ± 0.46 (21.17–23.10) 22.52 ± 0.46 (21.56–23.48) 0.013 0.602 1.72 0.95 < 0.001 0.90 < 0.001
RPE 5.83 ± 0.89 (5.26–6.39) 6.97 ± 0.81 (6.45–7.49) 19.55 0.003 7.34 ± 0.18 (6.97–7.72) 7.56 ± 0.18 (7.19–7.94) 0.029 0.438 2.99 0.72 < 0.001 0.28 0.061
HR (beat/min) 184.50 ± 1.32 (183.65–185.34) 187 ± 1.66 (185.94–188.05) 1.36 0.001 180.26 ± 0.53 (179.14–181.37) 183.32 ± 0.53 (182.21–184.43) 0.381 0.002 1.70 0.67 < 0.001 0.82 < 0.001
  1. Data are means and standard deviations. GM male group, GF female group, DOMS muscle soreness, HI Hooper indices, HR heart rate, RPE rating of perceived exertion
  2. d: effect size Cohen’s d
  3. ↑: Value Female training group × 100/value Male training group - 100
  4. : Baseline-adjusted post-test data